Wednesday, October 30, 2019

EMPLOYMENT LAW(EQUAL PAY LAWS-ARE THE ADEQUATE Essay

EMPLOYMENT LAW(EQUAL PAY LAWS-ARE THE ADEQUATE - Essay Example It would be necessary to consider each aspect individually in order to arrive at the correct results regarding the effectiveness of relevant legislatures and laws on the overall parity between genders in the context of UK employment scenario. What is necessary to consider in this paper is its scope, in that it is to examine whether the laws monitoring a more just and equitable wage distribution system between genders, absence of bias and discrimination in wage rate fixation systems among the genders and also the impact of work performance. The simple and logical rule is that both men and women need to be paid equally for performing the same kind and output of work, and there should be no bias or discrimination in wage rate fixation based on their gender and not performance. Further, the onus would fall upon the employers to prove that differentials in wage scales were due to other important and significant considerations other then gender. When men and women are performing the same kind of work, and following the same criteria for its performance, it is necessary that they be rewarded on similar quantitative basis, to avoid disparity and bias in wage payment systems. Again, if differentials persist, it would be incumbent upon the part of the employers to state and prove the reasons for such differences were due to material reasons other than the choice of gender discrimination. For instance it could be due to better technical knowledge, greater output and superior quality of performance, etc. It is proposed to examine these laws and directives in order to reach a consensus on the effectiveness of wage equality laws. Moreover, another important aspect that needs to be considered in this context could be that laws need to be operationalised and properly implemented in order to be of some consequence. Besides, constant monitoring and follow up action also needs to be made in order to be of some

Monday, October 28, 2019

Development of Space Power in India

Development of Space Power in India SPACE POWER- A FORCE MULTIPLIER â€Å"The vastness of space is a key factor in the war-form of the future† Alvin Heidi Toffler[1] CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Space has always been a matter of great interest to human race, which gazed and tried to explore this cosmic world for thousands of years. Even our own epics talk a lot about space and its utilisation. The space warfare is as old as Indian mythology. However, Science flourished during the European Renaissance and fundamental physical laws governing planetary motion were discovered, and the orbits of the planets around the Sun were calculated. The Chinese were the first to develop a rocket in around 1212 AD. In 1883, a Russian schoolmaster, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, first explained the mechanics of how a rocket could fly into space.[2]. In the 17th century, astronomers pointed a new device called the telescope at the heavens and made startling discoveries[3]. On 03 Oct 1942, German scientists launched an A-4 rocket, which travelled a distance of 190 km and reached an altitude of over 80 km. Orbital operations started with Soviet Sputnik-1 satellite in 1957[4]. Since then exploration and exploitation of the space has been a continued effort. This led to the unfolding of mysteries of the space world and thus using it for own advantages. Military use of space started with the launch of an American reconnaissance satellite in 1960.[5] Since then, the utilisation of space has been a matter of debate and controversies as far as direct war fighting military roles and missions are concerned. However, the support operations like Intelligence, communication and reconnaissance, which came first, did not face much of resistance. The benefits possible from the space-based support operations were realised very quickly and these operations were extended further to surveillance, mapping, navigation, ground mapping, environmental monitoring etc. Space systems have brought better intelligence and stronger defences by enabling the collection of new types of data and information; significantly increasing communications capabilities and capacities; revolutionizing precision navigation and timing; enriching science; establishing new markets; providing safer air, land, and sea transportation; and enabling faster disaster relief as well as more effective civil planning[6]. The phenomenal utilization and exploitation of the space medium has finally provided the users the power to gain advantage over the enemy. Traditionally, power has been related to explosive ordinance and target destruction. But in the post-Cold War world, the power most often delivered by airmen has taken the form of humanitarian aid: food, medical supplies, and heavy equipment.[7] Also Knowledge is the purest form of power and is the reason that overhead surveillance, reconnaissance, and intelligence-gathering efforts are so important in both war and peace. Information delivered from above can be used to strengthen a friendly regime, discredit an enemy regime, or directly attack the morale of an adversarys frontline troops. They can detect missile launches, nuclear tests and they can provide secure real time communications all over the world. The resolution available with satellite reconnaissance is more than adequate for military needs. The accuracy of GPS is known to us all. In le ss hostile circumstances, the information might consist of humanitarian warnings about impending natural disasters or news about disaster-relief efforts[8]. The meteorological satellites provide accurate weather data from any part of the world. Thus in past few years, space-based systems have enabled dramatic improvement in military and intelligence operations thus enhancing its capability, accuracy and fire power. Thus the Space medium emerging as Space Power and the most effective and widely used force multiplier. METHODOLOGY Statement Of Problem To study and analyse the feasibility of Space Power to evolve as a frontline force multiplier for India and to critically examine the road ahead. Justification Of Study Indias achievement in the field of space capability may not seem to be very advanced especially when compared with the accomplishments of the superpowers and elite members of the satellite club. However, one needs to look at the Indian space programme in isolation to fully understand the tremendous progress and achievements that have been made from such a humble beginning. All the countries have developed launch vehicles as an offshoot of their ballistic missile projects, and their satellites were primarily intended for military use. Non- military applications were a spinoff of the military programmes, whereas India has developed space applications and launch vehicles for totally civilian use. The technology was also used within a broader framework to achieve socio-economic development, and military spin-offs have been incidental. Therefore, India has an inherent advantage as far as civilian support role is concerned however it needs special effort and attitude to develop military support application. Utilization of Space medium and Control of space based assets will be an important ingredient of future world power. President APJ Kalam has stated that accomplishments in space have traditionally been a barometer of international status, technological prowess and enhanced military capability. Rapid advancements in Information Technology, Internet and Com munications are increasingly utilising space based assets. These assets play a decisive role in shaping the outcome of conflicts and are engines that drive economic growths. India and China are likely to be the economic powerhouses of the 21st Century. India is also emerging as a key balancer of Asian stability. By its combined military and space technology, India would be required to contain regional conflicts and prevent unscrupulous exploitation of the Indian Ocean region[9]. Therefore development of space power both for military and civilian use, especially as a force multiplier is must to climb up the pyramid of world power. Perceptions determine actions. The militarys perception of the air and space environment influences the type of space forces it will develop in the future[10]. In Indias context which has belligerent neighbours, space based capabilities are the definite force multiplier. In fact, military strategist call space the new ‘High Ground. Which will bring in revolutionary changes in military affairs. Therefore we need to decide the kind of space force which we need to develop to exploit Space medium to the maximum as a force multiplier to maintain edge in the region. Scope This study analyses the exploitation of Space Force as a force multiplier in the Indian Context. Methods Of Data Collection The information and data for this dissertation has been gathered through internet, various books, papers, journals and newspapers. In addition, lectures delivered by dignitaries at DSSC have been utilised to gather information. The bibliography of sources is appended at the end of the dissertation. Organisation Of The Dissertation It is proposed to study the subject in the following manner:- (a) Chapter I Introduction and Methodology. (b) Chapter II Understanding Space power. (c) Chapter III Roles and Application of Space Power. (d) Chapter IV Space Power as Force Multiplier. (e) Chapter V Indian Capability and the Road Ahead. (f) Chapter VI Recommendations and Conclusion. CHAPTER II UNDERSTANDING SPACE POWER The beginning of wisdom is calling things by their right names. —Confucius Space has fascinated many thinkers, philosophers and Air Warriors equally for a long time. Many a researches and money has gone in exploring and exploiting space but still the concepts are not very clear to many of us. It is extremely important for us to have clear understanding of space before we can evaluate the role and utilization of space medium. Definitions Space Space is void of substance, offers no protection from harmful radiation, and allows only the balance between thrust and gravity with which to maneuver.[11] Space begins where satellites can maintain orbit (81 miles) and extends to infinity.[12] Power is control or authority to influence; the ability to produce an act or event.[13] And Space power is a nations ability to exploit and control the space medium to support and achieve national goals.[14] Gravity The driving force behind all orbital dynamics is the force of gravity and is defined by the law of universal Gravitation given by Isaac Newton in 1687. It states â€Å" Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particle†.[15] Escape Velocity Satellites maintain orbit around a planet (Earth in our case) at a particular speed at a given height. If the speed is increased, the satellite goes into a higher orbit. Escape velocity is the speed at which the centrifugal force becomes greater than the pull of planetary gravity. The object would then cease to be an Earth-satellite, and start moving away from the earth. At 500 km the escape velocity is 10.8 km/sec.[16] Satellite Inclination Every satellite orbits within a plane that passes through Earths gravitational centre. The angle formed between the orbital plane of the satellite and the plane of the Earths equator. BY convention, it is measured anticlockwise from the equator to the orbital plane at the point where the satellite crosses, passing to north[17]. Orbits with inclination at or closer to 90 degrees are known as ‘polar orbits. ‘Equatorial orbits are those in or very close to the plane of the equator. The rest, between these two limits, are ‘inclined orbits. The combination of the satellites own motion and that of the rotating planet beneath produces a ‘ground track joining the successive points on the planet which fall directly beneath the satellite. The surface area of the planet in line-of-sight or direct communication with any satellite is a function of its altitude and ground track. In the lowest feasible orbits, the area that can be ‘seen by satelli te sensors is no more than that of one of Earths larger cities. Orbital Decay With a perfectly spherical planet of even density, no air resistance, and no minute gravitational pulls from neighbouring bodies (such as Sun, the Moon, and the other planets), a satellite would stay in orbit forever. In the real world these factors upset the balance of forces which sustains the orbit, which causes it to ‘decay, so that the satellite eventually falls to the Earth. For practical purposes, satellites which go below 300 km encounter air resistance serious enough to require intermittent use of on-board boosters to maintain their orbits.[18] Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This orbit ranges from a height of 200 and 5000 km. Polar and highly inclined orbits are favoured for general reconnaissance missions since they give planet-wide coverage. The periods of such range between 90 minutes and a few hours. Sun Synchronous orbit It is the orbit where in the satellite is used for surveillance at optical wave length and whose orbital motion will bring it periodically over the same area of interest at the same sunlight conditions from day to day. These orbital planes are called as Sun Synchronous orbit[19]. These are low earth orbits inclined at about 98 °. Semi-synchronous Orbit. This is circular orbit at 20,700 km with a period of 12 hours. The term is sometimes extended to all orbits between LEO and this orbit. Molniya Orbit. This is a highly elliptical orbit, at an altitude of between 500 40000 km, with a 12 hour period. This orbit is most stable at an inclination of 63 degrees. (At other inclinations gravitational anomalies resulting from irregularities in the shape and density of the planet cause the major axis of such an orbit the line joining the apogee and the perigee points to rotate inconveniently.) This orbit was used by the Soviet Union to provide satellite spending 11 hours out of 12 hours above the northern hemisphere.[20] Geostationary Satellite As the orbital height increases, so orbital period increases. If the orbital height increases to 35875km, the orbital period will be synchronised with the rotation rate of the Earth. Such a satellite would be called a geosynchronous satellite. If these satellite have zero degree of inclination such that these satellites will appear stationary in the sky over a point on the equator to an observer on earth. Such a satellite would be called a geostationary satellite[21]. This is a circular, equatorial orbit at an altitude of 35,700 km. With a period of 24 hours, such satellites appear to remain almost stationary above a fixed point over the equator. In practice, they sometimes describe a very small ‘ of eight ground tracks about such a point. Three or more evenly spaced geostationary satellites can cover most of the planet, except the Polar Regions. These satellites are mainly used for communications or early warning of missiles. Geosynchronous Orbit has li ttle military or other uses because of its large ‘ of eight ground tracks, depending on its inclination. In military discussions the term ‘geostationary, is tending to be replaced by ‘geosynchronous, because the former is the limiting case of the latter. Even a small inclination causes a geostationary satellite to become a ‘strictly speaking geosynchronous one. Military geostationary satellites may sometimes have a use for such a ground track, though seldom for the much wider, true geosynchronous orbit.[22] Super-synchronous Orbit. The orbits above GEO have had little use so far, but offer many options for future military satellites taking refuge from ground based or LEO anti-satellites. Certain points of equilibrium between solar, lunar and terrestrial gravitation are especially interesting.[23] (a) Near-Earth Orbit (NEO) or aerospace extends 50 to 200 kilometers above the Earths surface, incorporating the mesosphere and the lower edge of the ionosphere in an intermediate region where aerodynamics and ballistics interact or succeed each other. In the short term, NEO will remain the primary location for the deployment of manned and unmanned military systems and probable major space industrialization facilities such as a manned space operations center (SOC)[24]. It is through this zone that ballistic missiles must proceed during and after their boost phase and are most vulnerable to antiballistic missile (ABM) systems. However, minimum long-range effects from nuclear explosions are found at altitudes between 50 and 150 kilometers: above 50 kilometers, the mechanical effects of shockwave pressures almost disappear as a consequence of the relatively low air density; below 150 kilometers, the air density is still high enough to reduce the range of corpuscular radiation through di spersion and absorption so that the long-range thermal effect is also not maximum.[25] Therefore, even very powerful nuclear devises in the megaton range must be detonated at relatively close proximity to their intended target at NEO to be effective, although electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects could seriously disrupt unhardened electronic systems at long-range distances. Nevertheless, targets at NEO, compared to those at higher gravity well zones, are relatively vulnerable to Earth-based intervention because of an inherently short warning time available for the implementation of countermeasures and the minimal amount of energy that the enemy must expend to reach this zone. Conversely, a weapon system such as a fractional orbital bombardment system (FOBS) at NEO could attack targets on Earth with a minimum of warning[26]. (b) (c) The cislunar zone consists of all space between NEO and Lunar Surface Orbit (LSO), including Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The cislunar zone provides military systems situated here the defensive option of a longer reaction time to implement countermeasures against Earth- or NEO-based intervention[27]. (d) (e) LSO consists of the zone of space where the Moon orbits the Earth, including Near Lunar Orbit (NLO) or the space immediately surrounding the Moon. (f) (g) The translunar zone is comprised of the space from LSO to approximately one million kilometers from the Earths surface, where the solar gravity well begins to predominate and includes the five Lagrangian points. These final zones will attain increasing military significance as the process of space industrialization evolves. Eventually the Moon and Lagrangian points could be used to dominate the entire Earth-Moon system.[28] Outer Space In the denomination of legal material dealing with the space exploration and nearly the entire space law, the term outer space is commonly used. But this term has not been defined to date with precision despite many attempts undertaken by jurists, International non-governmental and the United Nations bodies[29]. The difference between space and the outer space is generally not recognised. But the former term is wider than the latter and means the whole universe including the earth while outer space means all spaces other than the earth. In fact, outer space begins where the earths atmosphere ends and extends on in all directions infinitely. The upper limit of the air space constitutes the lowest limit of outer space. The outer space in a broader sense also consists of the entire space beyond celestial bodies and their atmosphere. Celestial bodies include all land masses in space and their atmosphere except Earth. Therefore, air space is excluded from outer space. The diff erence between space and outer space is insignificant in so far as the exploration and use of such domain is concerned[30]. (h) The tactical space environment The tactical space environment of the Earth-Moon system can be conceptualized as a series of gravity well zones that are somewhat analogous to terrestrial hills, promontories, and mountains in that much effort and energy must be initially expended to situate forces in such locations. Once attained, however, these positions can be used to dominate the terrain below with relative ease. 1 illustrates in two-dimensional form the gravity well zones of the Earth-Moon system, which are in reality three dimensional spheres[31]. (i) (j) During the next two decades, military space activities and the development of various commercial space enterprises (or space industrialization) will be primarily restricted to this system. Possible military missions in this tactical environment include direct intervention on the Earths surface form space, regulation of the flow of space traffic, protection of military and industrial space facilities, denial of strategic areas of space to others (such as choice satellite orbits at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and the various Lagrangian points at which objects revolve with the same period as the gravitational Earth-Moon system and thus remain effectively stationary), and various surveillance, reconnaissance, navigation, command, control, and communication functions[32]. CLICHÉ ABOUT SPACE POWER The space power being the latest addition to the force of a Nation, there is still a huge dilemma about its placement, its use whether military or civilian and also its control. Currently, a fully developed space power theory does not exist. USSPACECOM, recognizing the void, has commissioned Dr. Brian R. Sullivan as lead author to develop this theory.[33] Therefore there is requirement to develop a fully fledged theory and doctrine to guide the developed of space power straight from its infancy. Space is the next great arena for exploration and exploitation. We are limited only by imagination to the wonders, challenges and excitement the next century will bring as far as space forces are concerned. Already, civil and commercial sectors have invested billions of dollars in space and the nations military recognizes its role to protect these interests. The debate within the military on how to best exploit this new medium continues. But there is a need to go over few of the basic issues about Space Power to understand it clearly. The militarys current view of the air and space environment seems to simultaneously focus on opposing relationships between the two mediums. Air and space represent two distinct realms and at the same time, they are difficult to separate because of their similarities. These two relationships exist simultaneously and come together to form the following organizational paradigm of the air and space environment: Space and the atmosphere represent two distin ct medium environments physically different from each other; while at the same time, they are physically linked, and theoretically and historically tied.[34] There are few of these set of fundamental issues which require to be vetted if we are to understand space power with the kind of clarity with which we now understand air power and if we are to understand their nexus[35]. First of the issue, is regarding direct use of space as a Space power or weaponising of space to use it as a force itself. We must determine whether space power apply great power quickly to any tangible target on the planet? Many people would answer no to this question because of political restraints on weaponising space. Others would argue for an affirmative answer based on technical, if not political, feasibility. In either case, the question concerning the applicability of the essence remains assumed but undemonstrated. Or perhaps there exists a space power version of the essence that differs from all other military operations, including air power[36]. Also there are concerns regarding the future of space power and the kinds of military operations that are likely to migrate to space. Space may become another battle space, or it may become only a home to military operations focussed on non-lethal activities in support of combat elsewhere. So the major concern is whether space will be used as direct source of force or will continued to be used as a force multiplier only. Why does the military need a space force? The answers to this question shape military space force development by providing a sense of long-term direction, describing how such a force would serve national interests, and prescribing a force structure to fulfill that need. They are foundational answers that ultimately form the basis for space power theory and enable the military to articulate and justify reasons for a military space force. As the military more clearly articulates why space forces are needed, the better it is able to identify specific requirements necessary to achieve those forces. Thus, this question and the next are closely tied together[37]. What should the military do in space? The answers to this question bring the focus from broad to specific. They help formulate the functions and missions of a military space force, and provide the framework for establishing detailed force requirements. To summarize, the answers to the question of who establish the advocates for a military space force development. The answers to the questions of why and what together develop and identify long term direction, and offer short-term input to the resource allocation process.[38] The next issue is to do with the control of space power. This will mainly emerge from our innovation, imagination and farsightedness. Air Power being the strongest contender of claiming the control of space, there is need to deeply study the relationship between Space power and Air Power. This relationship can be well understood only by defining and studying the relationship between space and Air. Who should lead and develop military space forces? This question addresses the need to focus on finding the best organization, or mix of organizations, to advocate a military space force. Military space advocates must be able to justify—on military grounds alone—the necessity of military forces in space. These organizations are the stewards that provide both administrative control over the forces that support military space power, and the war-fighting control of these forces during employment of that power. A space force advocate embraces and promotes the ideals for a military space force, and garners the support necessary to establish such a force[39]. Air and Space relationship The defining characteristic of air power is an operational regime ele ­vated above the earths surface. Conceptually, space power would seem to be more of the same at a higher elevation. The term aerospace, coined in the late 1950s, echoes this same theme, as do official pronouncements such as although there are physical differences between the atmosphere and space, there is no absolute boundary between them. The same basic military activities can be performed in each, albeit with different platforms and methods.[40] The move from earth to space transitsis through the air environment, thereby inherently bringing about a linkage as no space launch or recovery can take place without transiting through the air medium. Any differentiation between the two would be superficial and indefinable. In future, the air and space mediums would provide a seamless environment where Trans Atmospheric Vehicles (TAVs) and re-usable hypersonic vehicles could exploit it freely. In addition, with increas ed proliferation of Ballistic Missiles and development of potent nuclear warheads, there is a need to extend the current Air Defence capabilities to space to ensure that the threats emanating from the air and space environment can be effectively tackled.[41] While the physical borders between the land, sea and air are readily evident, the physical border between air and space is not as clear. The atmosphere gradually disappears and space gradually starts. Furthermore, from a physical point of view, earths entire connection to space is through the atmosphere. Every movement into space begins with movement through air. Thus, from a physical point of view, space is linked with air.[42] Conceptually thinking, we cannot easily ignore the vast differences between operations in the atmosphere and in space? Current military thought suggests that space is a medium separate and distinct from the atmosphere with physical characteristics unique enough that a barrier forms between the two. The atmosphere is a realm of substance offering the advantages of protection from radiation, thermal transfer of heat and the ability to produce and control lift and drag. These aspects of the air medium make it considerably different than the realm of space.[43] Space assets are differentiated from air platforms by being non-air breathing. Military force includes all of the civilian elements such as contractor support that are required to sustain air or space operations.[44] It is difficult to analyse these and many more issues dealing with space without a general, overarching theory of space power. The task is made even more difficult by several other factors, such as the limited experience base in military space operations, the tight security classification concerning much of what goes on in space, and the thoroughly sub-divided responsibility for space operations. Thus, we have a conundrum-a jig-saw puzzle that will someday picture how space power fits or doesnt fit with air power. Solving the puzzle represents a major leadership challenge.[45] The answers to these questions will drive the future direction the military takes in space. Fundamentally influencing these answers is the militarys organizationally held perceptions of the air and space environment itself. The militarys view of this environment not only shapes the role the military sees for itself in space, but affects how it develops space forces necessary to support that role.[46] CHAPTER III Air and space power is a critical—and decisive—element in protecting our nation and deterring aggression. It will only remain so if we as professional airmen study, evaluate, and debate our capabilities and the environment of the future. Just as technology and world threat and opportunities change, so must our doctrine. We, each of us, must be the articulate and knowledgeable advocates of air and space power. —General Michael E. Ryan ROLES AND APPLICATIONS OF SPACE POWER Victory smiles upon those who anticipate the changes in the character of war not upon those who wait to adapt themselves after the changes occur. Guilio Douhet Man has a compelling urge to explore, to discover and to try to go where no one has ever been before. As most of the Earth has already been explored and even though it is going to be there for a very long time, men have now turned to space exploration as their next objective.[47] Space has provided us with huge capability because of its reach and ubiquity. The roles and applications of Space range widely from direct military roles of using it as a platform to launch weapons or support role of enhancing the capabilities of human beings in both military and civil field. Thus as we race into the next decade, a new frontier seems to be opening up in space with vast potential for military, science and exploration activities. So far as the armed forces are concerned, the sensor like satellites would provide them with unheard-of capabilities in a large number of fields.[48] Space power is becoming an in ­creasingly important aspect of na ­tional strength, but experts disagree about how best to develop its poten ­tial. Like airpower, space power relies heavily upon advanced technology, but technology is useless unless space professionals apply it properly. Air Force leaders recognize that the service needs to nurture a team of highly dedicated space professionals who are prepared to exploit advanced technologies and operating concepts. Concern about the fu ­ture direction of military activities in space has spurred debate over which technologies to produce and how best to develop space professionals. Moral, theoretical, and doc ­trinal questions also loom large. Underlying all of these considerations are political and diplomatic factors[49]. Supporting Role Today, space power pro ­vides supporting functions such as commu ­nications, reconnaissance, and navigation by global positioning system (GPS) satellites. By the end of 1999, at least 2300 military oriented satellites had already been launched. The functions of military satellites, which constitute about 75% of all satellites orbited, ranged from navigation, communications, meteorological and reconnaissance[50]. New technologies move large amounts of data around the world at the speed of light. Al-though a century ago people would have con ­sidered such feats science fiction, modern space capabilities make these and so many more things, reality. Space power has transformed our society and our military. Today, at the outset of the twenty-first century, we simply cannot live—or fight and win—without it. Operation Desert Storm is considered as the first space war, however the supporting role of space like providing near real time data from communicati on and meteorological satellites, was present during the war in Vietnam also. The Gulf War of 1991, however, was the â€Å"first conflict in history to make comprehensive use of space systems support.† [51] The support provided by the space based operations has enhanced the military capabilities drastically such that these operations have become inseparable part of every military operation. Some of these roles have been described as under: (a) Communication Satellites Communicating with deployed forces has always presented the military commanders with a problem. This is especially true in todays fast moving world when troops may have to be deployed anywhere in the world at a very short notice. The orbit used by communication satellite is the geostationary orbit. Three of Development of Space Power in India Development of Space Power in India SPACE POWER- A FORCE MULTIPLIER â€Å"The vastness of space is a key factor in the war-form of the future† Alvin Heidi Toffler[1] CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Space has always been a matter of great interest to human race, which gazed and tried to explore this cosmic world for thousands of years. Even our own epics talk a lot about space and its utilisation. The space warfare is as old as Indian mythology. However, Science flourished during the European Renaissance and fundamental physical laws governing planetary motion were discovered, and the orbits of the planets around the Sun were calculated. The Chinese were the first to develop a rocket in around 1212 AD. In 1883, a Russian schoolmaster, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, first explained the mechanics of how a rocket could fly into space.[2]. In the 17th century, astronomers pointed a new device called the telescope at the heavens and made startling discoveries[3]. On 03 Oct 1942, German scientists launched an A-4 rocket, which travelled a distance of 190 km and reached an altitude of over 80 km. Orbital operations started with Soviet Sputnik-1 satellite in 1957[4]. Since then exploration and exploitation of the space has been a continued effort. This led to the unfolding of mysteries of the space world and thus using it for own advantages. Military use of space started with the launch of an American reconnaissance satellite in 1960.[5] Since then, the utilisation of space has been a matter of debate and controversies as far as direct war fighting military roles and missions are concerned. However, the support operations like Intelligence, communication and reconnaissance, which came first, did not face much of resistance. The benefits possible from the space-based support operations were realised very quickly and these operations were extended further to surveillance, mapping, navigation, ground mapping, environmental monitoring etc. Space systems have brought better intelligence and stronger defences by enabling the collection of new types of data and information; significantly increasing communications capabilities and capacities; revolutionizing precision navigation and timing; enriching science; establishing new markets; providing safer air, land, and sea transportation; and enabling faster disaster relief as well as more effective civil planning[6]. The phenomenal utilization and exploitation of the space medium has finally provided the users the power to gain advantage over the enemy. Traditionally, power has been related to explosive ordinance and target destruction. But in the post-Cold War world, the power most often delivered by airmen has taken the form of humanitarian aid: food, medical supplies, and heavy equipment.[7] Also Knowledge is the purest form of power and is the reason that overhead surveillance, reconnaissance, and intelligence-gathering efforts are so important in both war and peace. Information delivered from above can be used to strengthen a friendly regime, discredit an enemy regime, or directly attack the morale of an adversarys frontline troops. They can detect missile launches, nuclear tests and they can provide secure real time communications all over the world. The resolution available with satellite reconnaissance is more than adequate for military needs. The accuracy of GPS is known to us all. In le ss hostile circumstances, the information might consist of humanitarian warnings about impending natural disasters or news about disaster-relief efforts[8]. The meteorological satellites provide accurate weather data from any part of the world. Thus in past few years, space-based systems have enabled dramatic improvement in military and intelligence operations thus enhancing its capability, accuracy and fire power. Thus the Space medium emerging as Space Power and the most effective and widely used force multiplier. METHODOLOGY Statement Of Problem To study and analyse the feasibility of Space Power to evolve as a frontline force multiplier for India and to critically examine the road ahead. Justification Of Study Indias achievement in the field of space capability may not seem to be very advanced especially when compared with the accomplishments of the superpowers and elite members of the satellite club. However, one needs to look at the Indian space programme in isolation to fully understand the tremendous progress and achievements that have been made from such a humble beginning. All the countries have developed launch vehicles as an offshoot of their ballistic missile projects, and their satellites were primarily intended for military use. Non- military applications were a spinoff of the military programmes, whereas India has developed space applications and launch vehicles for totally civilian use. The technology was also used within a broader framework to achieve socio-economic development, and military spin-offs have been incidental. Therefore, India has an inherent advantage as far as civilian support role is concerned however it needs special effort and attitude to develop military support application. Utilization of Space medium and Control of space based assets will be an important ingredient of future world power. President APJ Kalam has stated that accomplishments in space have traditionally been a barometer of international status, technological prowess and enhanced military capability. Rapid advancements in Information Technology, Internet and Com munications are increasingly utilising space based assets. These assets play a decisive role in shaping the outcome of conflicts and are engines that drive economic growths. India and China are likely to be the economic powerhouses of the 21st Century. India is also emerging as a key balancer of Asian stability. By its combined military and space technology, India would be required to contain regional conflicts and prevent unscrupulous exploitation of the Indian Ocean region[9]. Therefore development of space power both for military and civilian use, especially as a force multiplier is must to climb up the pyramid of world power. Perceptions determine actions. The militarys perception of the air and space environment influences the type of space forces it will develop in the future[10]. In Indias context which has belligerent neighbours, space based capabilities are the definite force multiplier. In fact, military strategist call space the new ‘High Ground. Which will bring in revolutionary changes in military affairs. Therefore we need to decide the kind of space force which we need to develop to exploit Space medium to the maximum as a force multiplier to maintain edge in the region. Scope This study analyses the exploitation of Space Force as a force multiplier in the Indian Context. Methods Of Data Collection The information and data for this dissertation has been gathered through internet, various books, papers, journals and newspapers. In addition, lectures delivered by dignitaries at DSSC have been utilised to gather information. The bibliography of sources is appended at the end of the dissertation. Organisation Of The Dissertation It is proposed to study the subject in the following manner:- (a) Chapter I Introduction and Methodology. (b) Chapter II Understanding Space power. (c) Chapter III Roles and Application of Space Power. (d) Chapter IV Space Power as Force Multiplier. (e) Chapter V Indian Capability and the Road Ahead. (f) Chapter VI Recommendations and Conclusion. CHAPTER II UNDERSTANDING SPACE POWER The beginning of wisdom is calling things by their right names. —Confucius Space has fascinated many thinkers, philosophers and Air Warriors equally for a long time. Many a researches and money has gone in exploring and exploiting space but still the concepts are not very clear to many of us. It is extremely important for us to have clear understanding of space before we can evaluate the role and utilization of space medium. Definitions Space Space is void of substance, offers no protection from harmful radiation, and allows only the balance between thrust and gravity with which to maneuver.[11] Space begins where satellites can maintain orbit (81 miles) and extends to infinity.[12] Power is control or authority to influence; the ability to produce an act or event.[13] And Space power is a nations ability to exploit and control the space medium to support and achieve national goals.[14] Gravity The driving force behind all orbital dynamics is the force of gravity and is defined by the law of universal Gravitation given by Isaac Newton in 1687. It states â€Å" Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particle†.[15] Escape Velocity Satellites maintain orbit around a planet (Earth in our case) at a particular speed at a given height. If the speed is increased, the satellite goes into a higher orbit. Escape velocity is the speed at which the centrifugal force becomes greater than the pull of planetary gravity. The object would then cease to be an Earth-satellite, and start moving away from the earth. At 500 km the escape velocity is 10.8 km/sec.[16] Satellite Inclination Every satellite orbits within a plane that passes through Earths gravitational centre. The angle formed between the orbital plane of the satellite and the plane of the Earths equator. BY convention, it is measured anticlockwise from the equator to the orbital plane at the point where the satellite crosses, passing to north[17]. Orbits with inclination at or closer to 90 degrees are known as ‘polar orbits. ‘Equatorial orbits are those in or very close to the plane of the equator. The rest, between these two limits, are ‘inclined orbits. The combination of the satellites own motion and that of the rotating planet beneath produces a ‘ground track joining the successive points on the planet which fall directly beneath the satellite. The surface area of the planet in line-of-sight or direct communication with any satellite is a function of its altitude and ground track. In the lowest feasible orbits, the area that can be ‘seen by satelli te sensors is no more than that of one of Earths larger cities. Orbital Decay With a perfectly spherical planet of even density, no air resistance, and no minute gravitational pulls from neighbouring bodies (such as Sun, the Moon, and the other planets), a satellite would stay in orbit forever. In the real world these factors upset the balance of forces which sustains the orbit, which causes it to ‘decay, so that the satellite eventually falls to the Earth. For practical purposes, satellites which go below 300 km encounter air resistance serious enough to require intermittent use of on-board boosters to maintain their orbits.[18] Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This orbit ranges from a height of 200 and 5000 km. Polar and highly inclined orbits are favoured for general reconnaissance missions since they give planet-wide coverage. The periods of such range between 90 minutes and a few hours. Sun Synchronous orbit It is the orbit where in the satellite is used for surveillance at optical wave length and whose orbital motion will bring it periodically over the same area of interest at the same sunlight conditions from day to day. These orbital planes are called as Sun Synchronous orbit[19]. These are low earth orbits inclined at about 98 °. Semi-synchronous Orbit. This is circular orbit at 20,700 km with a period of 12 hours. The term is sometimes extended to all orbits between LEO and this orbit. Molniya Orbit. This is a highly elliptical orbit, at an altitude of between 500 40000 km, with a 12 hour period. This orbit is most stable at an inclination of 63 degrees. (At other inclinations gravitational anomalies resulting from irregularities in the shape and density of the planet cause the major axis of such an orbit the line joining the apogee and the perigee points to rotate inconveniently.) This orbit was used by the Soviet Union to provide satellite spending 11 hours out of 12 hours above the northern hemisphere.[20] Geostationary Satellite As the orbital height increases, so orbital period increases. If the orbital height increases to 35875km, the orbital period will be synchronised with the rotation rate of the Earth. Such a satellite would be called a geosynchronous satellite. If these satellite have zero degree of inclination such that these satellites will appear stationary in the sky over a point on the equator to an observer on earth. Such a satellite would be called a geostationary satellite[21]. This is a circular, equatorial orbit at an altitude of 35,700 km. With a period of 24 hours, such satellites appear to remain almost stationary above a fixed point over the equator. In practice, they sometimes describe a very small ‘ of eight ground tracks about such a point. Three or more evenly spaced geostationary satellites can cover most of the planet, except the Polar Regions. These satellites are mainly used for communications or early warning of missiles. Geosynchronous Orbit has li ttle military or other uses because of its large ‘ of eight ground tracks, depending on its inclination. In military discussions the term ‘geostationary, is tending to be replaced by ‘geosynchronous, because the former is the limiting case of the latter. Even a small inclination causes a geostationary satellite to become a ‘strictly speaking geosynchronous one. Military geostationary satellites may sometimes have a use for such a ground track, though seldom for the much wider, true geosynchronous orbit.[22] Super-synchronous Orbit. The orbits above GEO have had little use so far, but offer many options for future military satellites taking refuge from ground based or LEO anti-satellites. Certain points of equilibrium between solar, lunar and terrestrial gravitation are especially interesting.[23] (a) Near-Earth Orbit (NEO) or aerospace extends 50 to 200 kilometers above the Earths surface, incorporating the mesosphere and the lower edge of the ionosphere in an intermediate region where aerodynamics and ballistics interact or succeed each other. In the short term, NEO will remain the primary location for the deployment of manned and unmanned military systems and probable major space industrialization facilities such as a manned space operations center (SOC)[24]. It is through this zone that ballistic missiles must proceed during and after their boost phase and are most vulnerable to antiballistic missile (ABM) systems. However, minimum long-range effects from nuclear explosions are found at altitudes between 50 and 150 kilometers: above 50 kilometers, the mechanical effects of shockwave pressures almost disappear as a consequence of the relatively low air density; below 150 kilometers, the air density is still high enough to reduce the range of corpuscular radiation through di spersion and absorption so that the long-range thermal effect is also not maximum.[25] Therefore, even very powerful nuclear devises in the megaton range must be detonated at relatively close proximity to their intended target at NEO to be effective, although electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects could seriously disrupt unhardened electronic systems at long-range distances. Nevertheless, targets at NEO, compared to those at higher gravity well zones, are relatively vulnerable to Earth-based intervention because of an inherently short warning time available for the implementation of countermeasures and the minimal amount of energy that the enemy must expend to reach this zone. Conversely, a weapon system such as a fractional orbital bombardment system (FOBS) at NEO could attack targets on Earth with a minimum of warning[26]. (b) (c) The cislunar zone consists of all space between NEO and Lunar Surface Orbit (LSO), including Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The cislunar zone provides military systems situated here the defensive option of a longer reaction time to implement countermeasures against Earth- or NEO-based intervention[27]. (d) (e) LSO consists of the zone of space where the Moon orbits the Earth, including Near Lunar Orbit (NLO) or the space immediately surrounding the Moon. (f) (g) The translunar zone is comprised of the space from LSO to approximately one million kilometers from the Earths surface, where the solar gravity well begins to predominate and includes the five Lagrangian points. These final zones will attain increasing military significance as the process of space industrialization evolves. Eventually the Moon and Lagrangian points could be used to dominate the entire Earth-Moon system.[28] Outer Space In the denomination of legal material dealing with the space exploration and nearly the entire space law, the term outer space is commonly used. But this term has not been defined to date with precision despite many attempts undertaken by jurists, International non-governmental and the United Nations bodies[29]. The difference between space and the outer space is generally not recognised. But the former term is wider than the latter and means the whole universe including the earth while outer space means all spaces other than the earth. In fact, outer space begins where the earths atmosphere ends and extends on in all directions infinitely. The upper limit of the air space constitutes the lowest limit of outer space. The outer space in a broader sense also consists of the entire space beyond celestial bodies and their atmosphere. Celestial bodies include all land masses in space and their atmosphere except Earth. Therefore, air space is excluded from outer space. The diff erence between space and outer space is insignificant in so far as the exploration and use of such domain is concerned[30]. (h) The tactical space environment The tactical space environment of the Earth-Moon system can be conceptualized as a series of gravity well zones that are somewhat analogous to terrestrial hills, promontories, and mountains in that much effort and energy must be initially expended to situate forces in such locations. Once attained, however, these positions can be used to dominate the terrain below with relative ease. 1 illustrates in two-dimensional form the gravity well zones of the Earth-Moon system, which are in reality three dimensional spheres[31]. (i) (j) During the next two decades, military space activities and the development of various commercial space enterprises (or space industrialization) will be primarily restricted to this system. Possible military missions in this tactical environment include direct intervention on the Earths surface form space, regulation of the flow of space traffic, protection of military and industrial space facilities, denial of strategic areas of space to others (such as choice satellite orbits at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and the various Lagrangian points at which objects revolve with the same period as the gravitational Earth-Moon system and thus remain effectively stationary), and various surveillance, reconnaissance, navigation, command, control, and communication functions[32]. CLICHÉ ABOUT SPACE POWER The space power being the latest addition to the force of a Nation, there is still a huge dilemma about its placement, its use whether military or civilian and also its control. Currently, a fully developed space power theory does not exist. USSPACECOM, recognizing the void, has commissioned Dr. Brian R. Sullivan as lead author to develop this theory.[33] Therefore there is requirement to develop a fully fledged theory and doctrine to guide the developed of space power straight from its infancy. Space is the next great arena for exploration and exploitation. We are limited only by imagination to the wonders, challenges and excitement the next century will bring as far as space forces are concerned. Already, civil and commercial sectors have invested billions of dollars in space and the nations military recognizes its role to protect these interests. The debate within the military on how to best exploit this new medium continues. But there is a need to go over few of the basic issues about Space Power to understand it clearly. The militarys current view of the air and space environment seems to simultaneously focus on opposing relationships between the two mediums. Air and space represent two distinct realms and at the same time, they are difficult to separate because of their similarities. These two relationships exist simultaneously and come together to form the following organizational paradigm of the air and space environment: Space and the atmosphere represent two distin ct medium environments physically different from each other; while at the same time, they are physically linked, and theoretically and historically tied.[34] There are few of these set of fundamental issues which require to be vetted if we are to understand space power with the kind of clarity with which we now understand air power and if we are to understand their nexus[35]. First of the issue, is regarding direct use of space as a Space power or weaponising of space to use it as a force itself. We must determine whether space power apply great power quickly to any tangible target on the planet? Many people would answer no to this question because of political restraints on weaponising space. Others would argue for an affirmative answer based on technical, if not political, feasibility. In either case, the question concerning the applicability of the essence remains assumed but undemonstrated. Or perhaps there exists a space power version of the essence that differs from all other military operations, including air power[36]. Also there are concerns regarding the future of space power and the kinds of military operations that are likely to migrate to space. Space may become another battle space, or it may become only a home to military operations focussed on non-lethal activities in support of combat elsewhere. So the major concern is whether space will be used as direct source of force or will continued to be used as a force multiplier only. Why does the military need a space force? The answers to this question shape military space force development by providing a sense of long-term direction, describing how such a force would serve national interests, and prescribing a force structure to fulfill that need. They are foundational answers that ultimately form the basis for space power theory and enable the military to articulate and justify reasons for a military space force. As the military more clearly articulates why space forces are needed, the better it is able to identify specific requirements necessary to achieve those forces. Thus, this question and the next are closely tied together[37]. What should the military do in space? The answers to this question bring the focus from broad to specific. They help formulate the functions and missions of a military space force, and provide the framework for establishing detailed force requirements. To summarize, the answers to the question of who establish the advocates for a military space force development. The answers to the questions of why and what together develop and identify long term direction, and offer short-term input to the resource allocation process.[38] The next issue is to do with the control of space power. This will mainly emerge from our innovation, imagination and farsightedness. Air Power being the strongest contender of claiming the control of space, there is need to deeply study the relationship between Space power and Air Power. This relationship can be well understood only by defining and studying the relationship between space and Air. Who should lead and develop military space forces? This question addresses the need to focus on finding the best organization, or mix of organizations, to advocate a military space force. Military space advocates must be able to justify—on military grounds alone—the necessity of military forces in space. These organizations are the stewards that provide both administrative control over the forces that support military space power, and the war-fighting control of these forces during employment of that power. A space force advocate embraces and promotes the ideals for a military space force, and garners the support necessary to establish such a force[39]. Air and Space relationship The defining characteristic of air power is an operational regime ele ­vated above the earths surface. Conceptually, space power would seem to be more of the same at a higher elevation. The term aerospace, coined in the late 1950s, echoes this same theme, as do official pronouncements such as although there are physical differences between the atmosphere and space, there is no absolute boundary between them. The same basic military activities can be performed in each, albeit with different platforms and methods.[40] The move from earth to space transitsis through the air environment, thereby inherently bringing about a linkage as no space launch or recovery can take place without transiting through the air medium. Any differentiation between the two would be superficial and indefinable. In future, the air and space mediums would provide a seamless environment where Trans Atmospheric Vehicles (TAVs) and re-usable hypersonic vehicles could exploit it freely. In addition, with increas ed proliferation of Ballistic Missiles and development of potent nuclear warheads, there is a need to extend the current Air Defence capabilities to space to ensure that the threats emanating from the air and space environment can be effectively tackled.[41] While the physical borders between the land, sea and air are readily evident, the physical border between air and space is not as clear. The atmosphere gradually disappears and space gradually starts. Furthermore, from a physical point of view, earths entire connection to space is through the atmosphere. Every movement into space begins with movement through air. Thus, from a physical point of view, space is linked with air.[42] Conceptually thinking, we cannot easily ignore the vast differences between operations in the atmosphere and in space? Current military thought suggests that space is a medium separate and distinct from the atmosphere with physical characteristics unique enough that a barrier forms between the two. The atmosphere is a realm of substance offering the advantages of protection from radiation, thermal transfer of heat and the ability to produce and control lift and drag. These aspects of the air medium make it considerably different than the realm of space.[43] Space assets are differentiated from air platforms by being non-air breathing. Military force includes all of the civilian elements such as contractor support that are required to sustain air or space operations.[44] It is difficult to analyse these and many more issues dealing with space without a general, overarching theory of space power. The task is made even more difficult by several other factors, such as the limited experience base in military space operations, the tight security classification concerning much of what goes on in space, and the thoroughly sub-divided responsibility for space operations. Thus, we have a conundrum-a jig-saw puzzle that will someday picture how space power fits or doesnt fit with air power. Solving the puzzle represents a major leadership challenge.[45] The answers to these questions will drive the future direction the military takes in space. Fundamentally influencing these answers is the militarys organizationally held perceptions of the air and space environment itself. The militarys view of this environment not only shapes the role the military sees for itself in space, but affects how it develops space forces necessary to support that role.[46] CHAPTER III Air and space power is a critical—and decisive—element in protecting our nation and deterring aggression. It will only remain so if we as professional airmen study, evaluate, and debate our capabilities and the environment of the future. Just as technology and world threat and opportunities change, so must our doctrine. We, each of us, must be the articulate and knowledgeable advocates of air and space power. —General Michael E. Ryan ROLES AND APPLICATIONS OF SPACE POWER Victory smiles upon those who anticipate the changes in the character of war not upon those who wait to adapt themselves after the changes occur. Guilio Douhet Man has a compelling urge to explore, to discover and to try to go where no one has ever been before. As most of the Earth has already been explored and even though it is going to be there for a very long time, men have now turned to space exploration as their next objective.[47] Space has provided us with huge capability because of its reach and ubiquity. The roles and applications of Space range widely from direct military roles of using it as a platform to launch weapons or support role of enhancing the capabilities of human beings in both military and civil field. Thus as we race into the next decade, a new frontier seems to be opening up in space with vast potential for military, science and exploration activities. So far as the armed forces are concerned, the sensor like satellites would provide them with unheard-of capabilities in a large number of fields.[48] Space power is becoming an in ­creasingly important aspect of na ­tional strength, but experts disagree about how best to develop its poten ­tial. Like airpower, space power relies heavily upon advanced technology, but technology is useless unless space professionals apply it properly. Air Force leaders recognize that the service needs to nurture a team of highly dedicated space professionals who are prepared to exploit advanced technologies and operating concepts. Concern about the fu ­ture direction of military activities in space has spurred debate over which technologies to produce and how best to develop space professionals. Moral, theoretical, and doc ­trinal questions also loom large. Underlying all of these considerations are political and diplomatic factors[49]. Supporting Role Today, space power pro ­vides supporting functions such as commu ­nications, reconnaissance, and navigation by global positioning system (GPS) satellites. By the end of 1999, at least 2300 military oriented satellites had already been launched. The functions of military satellites, which constitute about 75% of all satellites orbited, ranged from navigation, communications, meteorological and reconnaissance[50]. New technologies move large amounts of data around the world at the speed of light. Al-though a century ago people would have con ­sidered such feats science fiction, modern space capabilities make these and so many more things, reality. Space power has transformed our society and our military. Today, at the outset of the twenty-first century, we simply cannot live—or fight and win—without it. Operation Desert Storm is considered as the first space war, however the supporting role of space like providing near real time data from communicati on and meteorological satellites, was present during the war in Vietnam also. The Gulf War of 1991, however, was the â€Å"first conflict in history to make comprehensive use of space systems support.† [51] The support provided by the space based operations has enhanced the military capabilities drastically such that these operations have become inseparable part of every military operation. Some of these roles have been described as under: (a) Communication Satellites Communicating with deployed forces has always presented the military commanders with a problem. This is especially true in todays fast moving world when troops may have to be deployed anywhere in the world at a very short notice. The orbit used by communication satellite is the geostationary orbit. Three of

Friday, October 25, 2019

Shakespeares Othello - Loving Desdemona :: Othello essays

Loving Desdemona  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   William Shakespeare, in his tragic drama Othello, creates a most exquisite character in the person of Desdemona. Her many virtues clearly require that she be given detailed consideration by every Christian member of the audience.    David Bevington in William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies describes the depth of virtue within this tragic heroine:    We believe her [Desdemona] when she says that she does not even know what it means to be unfaithful; the word â€Å"whore† is not in her vocabulary. She is defenseless against the charges brought against her because she does not even comprehend them, cannot believe that anyone would imagine such things. Her love, both erotic and chaste, is of that transcendent wholesomeness common to several late Shakespearean heroines [. . .]. Her â€Å"preferring† Othello to her father, like Cordelia’s placing her duty to a husband before that to a father, is not ungrateful but natural and proper. (221)    Blanche Coles in Shakespeare’s Four Giants interprets the protagonist’s very meaningful four-word greeting to Desdemona which he utters upon disembarking in Cyprus:    Othello’s four words, â€Å"O, my soul’s joy,† tell us that this beautiful Venetian girl has brought great joy, felicity, bliss to the very depths of his soul. This exquisitely beautiful love that has come to a thoughtful, earnest man is indescribably impressive. For him it is   heaven on earth. And all the while, almost within arm’s length, stands Iago, the embodiment of evil, like the serpent in the Garden of Eden. (87)    In Act 1 Scene1, Iago persuades the rejected suitor of Desdemona, Roderigo, to accompany him to the home of Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, in the middle of the night. Once there the two awaken him with loud shouts about his daughter’s elopement with Othello. In response to Iago’s vulgar descriptions of Desdemona’s involvement with the general, Brabantio arises from bed and, with Roderigo’s help, gathers a search party to go and find Desdemona and bring her home. The father’s attitude is that life without his Desdemona will be much worse than before:    It is too true an evil: gone she is;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   And what's to come of my despised time   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Is nought but bitterness. (1.1)    So obviously the senator has great respect for his daughter, or at least for the comforts which she has afforded him up the beginning of the play.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Exploring the Scope of a Course in Human Resource Management

Am a graduate in commerce from Pun university, after completing my graduation I decided to take up the masters program in Human Resource Management because was interested in the role it plays in achieving organizations goals and key objectives, amongst them being hiring and training the best employees, and dealing with performance issues. Then, I pursued my post graduation in HRS from SCUD which was a distance learning course. It though helped me in understanding the basic concepts of HARM spectrum; I was unable to apply it practically on job.It was only when I darted my career working with a consultancy helped me in understanding the importance of recruitment and selection of employees in an organization. While working with a consultancy, gained experience Of client interaction from start up to COMIC level 5 companies. It helped me to gain in depth understanding of recruitment and now was the time to move on and gain practical experience in other functions of HRS. Switched to anothe r company where performed In-house recruitment, got an exposure of hiring interns from TIT Delhi and TIT Iambi for a Japanese client.My executive role in IT industry is limited to recruitment and training, Performance appraisals, maintaining work atmosphere and managing disputes. Through this program, would like to gain knowledge of various other roles like audit, facilitator, consultancy and service It's through this diverse managerial experience I have acquired both in operating and managing a workforce of so many people that have decided to further my studies and pursue a career that will enable me provide good technical assistance and professional training to different firms ND multinational corporations on how to apply effective managerial principles.My throughout education, experience and knowledge inspires me to further enhance my abilities in HARM, and pursuing a certification degree from MM is a dream, a goal and will be the biggest achievement path of my career. I want to succeed in life and this program will enable me to be a trained professional, help me to understand in depth concepts of HARM My career goal is to work in a leading firm that places priority on professionalism ND lead such organization towards attainment of set goals by making use of knowledge as well as experience.I believe a certification in Human Resource Management is all that I need to make this dream come true. I chose the program from MM to enhance and deepen my knowledge and skills of Learning and development. The best part of the program is to learn, upgrade and grow, apply the learning while working.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Authoritarian Parents

Authoritarian Parenting: The Impact on Children. By Matthew J. Miller, Psy. D. Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Parenting Types: 1. Authoritarian 2. Authoritative 3. Permissive 4. Neglectful In the early 1960’s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted experiments with parents. These experiments were designed to identify and understand how parents differ in their responses to their children. As a result of the Baumrind study as well as further research, four main styles of parenting were delineated. They are Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Neglectful.Each style has its own characteristics as well as effects on children’s development. This article will discuss the impact on children of authoritarian parenting. Authoritarian Parenting For Authoritarian parents, rules are often more important than relationship. Authoritarian parents have many rules and they enforce them. They expect and demand adherence to high standards. Having high standards for the behavior of children is not necessarily a bad thing. However, the way they go about achieving these high standards hurts the relationship between the parent and child.The authoritarian parent often fails to explain the reasoning for the rules. In fact, they do not engage in much conversation with their children regarding the rules. When children ask, â€Å"why? † the response is, â€Å"Because I said so. † Not only does authoritarian parenting impact the current relationship between parent and child, but this type of parenting can have long-term effects on the emotional development of the child even into adulthood. In addition, the impact of this style of parenting can also be felt in the child’s relationship with God.The Current Relationship There is a strong element of fear that pervades an authoritarian household. Much like an authoritarian government, there is compliance with rules, but the compliance is typically not out of love. Children in an authoritarian home c omply out of fear. Fear of punishment and fear of the withholding of affection drives these children to comply. In addition to fear, the child does not feel loved and accepted by their parents. Children are punished for even minor infractions. Often, these punishments do not fit the crime and are overly punitive.Even worse, the punishments often result in relationship consequences which include a withholding of love and affection from the parents to the child. As a result, the child begins to learn that they are loved and accepted for what they do, rather than for who they are. John, a high-school basketball player I met, had this type of relationship with his father. His father would come to all of his games to see him play. While a parent’s presence at a child’s games should be a source of encouragement, for John it was not. If John had a good 2Current Relationship Consequences: 1. Fear 2. Lack of love and acceptance 3. Lost opportunities for guidance game, his fathe r was like a â€Å"Chatty Kathy† doll on the way home. You could not shut him up. On the other hand, if John’s game did not go as well, there was absolute silence. His father would not speak to him. John learned quickly that there were conditions placed on him to received love. He was loved if he performed. He was not love if he did not perform. Children raised by authoritarian parents often are compliant with parental rules.Authoritarian parents point to this compliance as evidence that their style of parenting is working. However, as with many things in life, there is an opportunity cost to decisions we make. Growing up is difficult, especially in this day and age. There are many times that a child will need help and guidance as they grow. When we seek guidance, we tend to seek it from relationships where we feel loved and accepted. Since children of authoritarian homes do not experience love and acceptance from their parents, they will seek counsel from someone outs ide the home, or they may seek no counsel at all.While the authoritarian parent may be a good person who has much wisdom to offer, when it comes to the major issues of life, the children do not seek their counsel. Relationship with God Often our view of God, who Jesus taught us to call Father, is similar to our view of our earthly father. Since our earthly father is visible to us â€Å"†¦We project our and God is not, we project our image of our earthly father onto our image of our earthly heavenly Father. When children grow up with demanding authoritarian parents, they often begin to see God the same way.While father onto our they may be obedient to God, this obedience is out of fear of heavenly Father. † punishment rather than a response to acceptance. Real change in our lives comes when we feel accepted, not when we fear punishment. As a result, children who grow up with authoritarian parents often have a negative view of God. As was stated above regarding their earth ly parents, children who hold an authoritarian view of God will likely not seek to build a deep relationship with Him. We do not seek relationship with those whom we fear. Instead, like Adam and Eve, they will seek to hide from God. Future DevelopmentIn addition to the impact authoritarian parenting has on the current relationship with their parents and their relationship with God, children who grow up in this type of home often experience long-term emotional consequences. These children often have poor social skills, low self-esteem, anger and higher rates of depression and anxiety. In addition, although they may remain compliant, they can develop an overall mistrust of authority. There are many reasons why these issues may develop in children with authoritarian parents. In an authoritarian home, compliance is expected, while independence is discouraged.Because they are taught to follow rules rather than take initiative, they are more capable of following instructions than becoming leaders. They are taught what to think rather than how to think. As a result, these children remain dependent emotionally into adulthood, sometimes even living in the parental home long after what would be considered emotionally healthy. This lack of independence, both emotional and physical, can result in low self-esteem. 3 Children growing up in an authoritarian home, like growing up under an authoritarian regime, experience a loss of control over their own lives.When we come to believe that no matter what we do, we cannot gain actual control Future Consequences: of our own life, eventually a sense of helplessness ensues. This â€Å"learned helplessness† is a major component in the development of 1. Poor social skills depression. This sense of powerlessness does not leave us when we leave the authoritarian parent. Instead, this becomes a deeply 2. Low self-esteem entrenched view of ourselves that can take years to overcome and can impact all future relationships including marital and parenting relationships. 3.Anger Along with a loss of control, children who grow up with 4. Depression authoritarian parents often experience anger at how they are being treated. However, their anger is not typically allowed to be 5. Anxiety expressed. Often the expression of any form of anger in an authoritarian home results in punishment. Where does the anger go? There are typically two ways that anger gets expressed. The first is in either active or passive rebellion against the parent, or, in the future, toward any form of authority. The second way that anger gets expressed is that the child turns the anger inward toward themselves.This internalization of anger also leads to depression. One reason why in the United States there is less violence against the government than in other countries is that our country’s laws encourage and protect freedom of speech. When people feel that their thoughts and feelings have an outlet, they are less prone to resort to viole nce. When people are not free to express themselves, they will tend toward helplessness or rebellion. Finally, children who are raised by authoritarian parents often experience increased anxiety.Because â€Å"wrong† decisions result in harsh punishments, they develop what Freud would describe as an overactive superego. The superego, according to Freud, is the moral branch of personality. It develops to guide us to make right decisions and to avoid punishments. For Christians, the superego includes the Holy Spirit. However, the Holy Spirit is not our only guide to determine the rightness or wrongness of our actions. The superego also includes the internalized values of the important people and structures (like the law) of our lives.As the number of rules increase, so does the superego. Anxiety is both an internal and external manifestation of the struggle to avoid real or perceived punishment. For those with an enlarged superego, the superego acts like the boulder chasing Indi ana Jones chasing us through our lives. In upcoming articles, the three other parenting styles will be discussed along with their impact on children.  © All Rights Reserved (2010). The Center for Christian Counseling & Relationship Development, L. L. C. Pavilions at Greentree, Ste. 303, 12000 Lincoln Dr. W. , Marlton, NJ 08053. (856) 396-0111. 4

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

primary colors essays

primary colors essays "Primary Colors" is a fictional account of a presidential primary campaign. The book is writen by Anonymous, who we now know is Newsweek colunmnist Joe Klein. Klein includes a disclainer saying he invented the characters and situations, but I feel that the book is about the Clintons. All the events are there. The champaign takes place in 1992. Stanton is the governor of a small Southern state. He has an authoritative wife, Suzan. He also has problems with promisuity, draft dodging, and war protest. The central charactor of the book is not Jack Stanton but the narrator Henry Burton. Former congressional aide and grandson of the famous civil rights leader, Harvey Burton. Henry tells the story of Governor Jack Stanton's presidential campaign. Young, black and no novice to insider politics, he signs on as deputy campaign manager but rapidly becomes the Governor's right hand man and psychological confident. Henry struggles with his role in the campaign, his responsibility to the candidate, and most disturbingly with how much he actually knows and believes in the real Jack Stantonthe man he would help become the leader of the United States of America. He also developes an odd comradeship in the manic, obsessive Richard Jemmons. The governor of a small southern state, Jack Stanton is the consummate politician. His love for the American people is palpable, but starkly contrasted with his relentless pursuit of power and his on-going sexual indiscretions. He is a master of the political system. Stanton has gone to great measures to surround himself with unwavering supporters, from his wife Susan Stanton to people he connects with along the campaign. Stanton is man who wants to be president and will let nothing, least of all his own Susan Stanton is a skilled lawyer and experienced campaigner. She shares the Governor's same ruthless desire but is as carefu ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Decision making in manufacturing organization related to make or buy scenarios. The WritePass Journal

Decision making in manufacturing organization related to make or buy scenarios. INTRODUCTION Decision making in manufacturing organization related to make or buy scenarios. INTRODUCTIONDecision Making: Decision making Theory:LITERATURE REVIEW  Make or Buy DecisionsMake or Buy CategoriesInitiation of Make or Buy StudiesLong-term/Short-term ConsiderationsFinancial/Non-Financial ClassificationAspects for ConsiderationReasons / considerations for MakingReasons / considerations for BuyingReasons given for reconsidering Make-Buy Decisions RESEARCH METHODOLOGYData collection TechniquesQualitative and Quantitative Research approachProject PlanReferences.Related INTRODUCTION Manufacturing Organization in Today’s world is constantly facing the challenges of making strategic decisions that affect the sustainability and profitability of the manufacturing Organization. This study will be exploring the aspects of decision making within a manufacturing Organisation as it relates to make or buy scenarios. In other for these decisions to be made an understanding of the decision making process is needed. Decision Making: This involves the processes resulting to a selection of a course of action among several alternatives.(1) To a great extend, the success or failure of companies greatly depends on the quality of their decisions. Decision making Theory: This is a general approach to decision making when the outcomes associated with alternatives are often in doubt. It follows a process of 1. Listing the feasible alternatives. One alternative that should be always considered as a basis for reference is to do   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  nothing. 2. List the events. (Also called chance events or states of nature) that have an impact on the outcome of the choice but not under the decision maker`s control 3. Calculate the payoff for each alternative in each event The payoff is the total profit or total cost These payoffs can be entered into a payoff table, which shows the amount for each alternative if each possible event occurs.. 4. Estimate the likelihood of each event using past data, executive opinion or other forecasting methods. This is expressed as a probability, making sure that the probabilities sum to 1.0 5. Selecting a decision rule to evaluate the alternatives, such as choosing the alternative with the lowest expected cost. This depends on the amount of information the decision maker has on the events probabilities and the decision maker`s attititude towards risk The types of decision people make depend on how much knowledge or information they have about the situation. (2) Decision making can be examined under three different situations. 1. Decision making under uncertainty. (Events can be listed but their probability cannot be  Ã‚  Ã‚   estimated). 2. Decision making under risk. (Events can be listed and their probability estimated). 3. Decision making under certainty. (A situation where the outcomes are known) Buy or Make decisions are increasingly common as companies, in their efforts to improve efficiency and competitiveness, focus on their core activity which they do best, and contract out peripheral activities.(3) Make or buy decisions rarely depend solely on cost factors. Other factors need to be considered: e.g. Continuity of supplies Retaining skilled labour Employing specialist plant The availability of capital to make and the alternative uses for such capital etc.    Each company therefore engaged in manufacture may have to review periodically the extent to which it will: a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Make or buy plant, equipment or components b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Process internally or buy out semi-finished components and materials Decisions may result from changes in the company or market situation. Some firms pursue a policy of specialisation and concentrate their production effort on a fairly narrow front and thus buy out a wide range of commodities. Other companies, however, tend to exercise greater control over the manufacture of equipment, components and the processing of semi-finished materials, minimising the number of the various items bought out.    LITERATURE REVIEW   Make or Buy Decisions a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   MACRO Decisions involve long-term capital expenditure relating usually to products and materials as in questions of vertical integration requiring the determination of policy by senior management e.g. the decision by a print manufacturer to acquire a printing press. b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   MICRO Decisions, which normally relate to buyers e.g. new parts i.e. should these be made or bought in etc. Make or Buy Categories Make or buy decisions may apply in four different situations: a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Items currently made in consideration being given to buying out. b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Items currently bought out consideration being given to making in. C)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Items currently part made in consideration being given to placing all the work internally or externally. d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Items for a new requirement consideration being given to making in or buying out in total or in part. Initiation of Make or Buy Studies Make or buy studies may be initiated by Purchasing or by other departments resulting from: a)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Large price increases being submitted by suppliers b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Space needed for other more lucrative production commitments c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Production rationalisation plans d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Comparative price studies (Value Analysis or ABC analysis). Long-term/Short-term Considerations Make or buy decisions may relate to long-term or short-term needs (i.e. can it be planned or emergency situations?).(5). The extent to which efforts are deployed will depend on value, importance and time-scale. Take the case of a company requiring a minor spare urgently. The part is normally made in but because of a machine breakdown Purchasing is asked to buy out. Obviously, in such a situation an in-depth study will not be mounted involving Finance, Product Development, Market Research etc. Financial/Non-Financial Classification Make or buy studies can be classified as being: a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   financial i.e. they are done on a strictly cost comparison basis b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   non-financial i.e. they are done because of other constraints which will, obviously, have an ultimate financial impact (e.g. secrecy, lack of expertise, time factor etc.) Aspects for Consideration Aspects for consideration in a make or buy study may include: Item currently bought out a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Is there a patent involved which might incur a Royalty payment? b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Are the prices being paid the lowest which might be achieved externally? c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Does the supplier have a greater purchasing power than the buyer for the materials he obtains? d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Is the raw material readily available to the buyer? e)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Will the withdrawal of business from a supplier jeopardise future supplies should the make in decision be later reversed? Items currently made in: a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Will the quantities interest the outside supplier? b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Will new tooling be required and at what cost? c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Might the part be subject to frequent modification d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Will a transfer of work create personnel problems?    Reasons / considerations for Making 1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Making is cheaper than buying (Cost considerations) 2)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To ensure direct control of quality 3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Delivery times from outside suppliers are too long 4)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   No suitable suppliers 5)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To ensure continuity of supply 6)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To utilise spare production capacity (i.e. help to absorb fixed overhead/s) 7)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To retain labour during slack trade declining trade 8)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To maintain secrecy / Design secrecy required 9)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To utilise scrap / surplus materials 10)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Desire to integrate plant operations 11)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Desire to maintain a stable workforce (i.e. in periods of declining sales) 12)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Need to exert direct control over production and / or quality    Reasons / considerations for Buying a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Buying is cheaper than making (Cost considerations) b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Quantities required are too small for economical production c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To avoid cost of specialist plant or labour d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To augment capacity e)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To utilise the vendors specialist expertise, machinery and/or patents / RD f)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To reduce investment in inventory g)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Transfer of risk to vendor h)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Own company may not be able to make all it needs of the sort of part (may not have the plant capacity.) i)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Desire to maintain a multi-source policy j)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Desire to maintain a stable workforce (i.e. in periods of rising sales) k)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To open up new markets by sourcing overseas l)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Efficient Procurement Reasons given for reconsidering Make-Buy Decisions 1)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Deterioration in suppliers quality performance 2)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Delivery failure or poor service by existing sources 3)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Large price increase 4)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Volume changes, much larger or smaller quantity requirements for item concerned 5)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pressure to reduce costs 6)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Desire to maintain employment of people or utilisation of plant and physical resources in a downturn 7)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Need to get earlier or more reliable sources 8)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Need for design secrecy 9)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Import substitution 10)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Suppliers withdrawal from a particular market    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In carrying out research, academics have suggested considering using various types of research approach. The scope of this report is to explore make or buy decision making in manufacturing organization The general principle is that the research strategy or strategies, and the methods or techniques employed, must be appropriate for the questions you want to answer. This systematically describes the general overview of the link between research question and research design. To carry out a good project, one must develop his/her own ideas on how best to carry out the research. There are two different types of research route generally used by authors when carrying out a research, thesis or project, there are fixed and flexible design. (Robson.c, 2002). It compares the two different approaches in carrying out a research to petroleum engineers and explorers respectively: The petroleum engineer has a specific goal in mind, to find oil buried below the surface. Before the engineer begins the investigation on how to acquire the oil a careful study of maps showing features of the geographic area, with this information at hand the engineer will then go and find something specific. To follow the fixed design route, one must generally know what they are looking for, however flexible design encourages one to explore generally. Flexible design could be described as gathering information, going first in one direction and then perhaps retracting that route. On discovering a lake in the middle of a large wooded area, the explorer would take frequent compass readings, check that angle of the sun, takes noted on prominent land marks and then use feedback from each observation to modify earlier information. Carrying out a general research, it is advisable for an initial focus to be mapped out by the researcher as it aids to answer the primary question of (What do I intend to achieve when carrying out this research) The initial stages of carrying out a r esearch can be either problematic or straightforward depending on what sort of research is being carried out. Data collection Techniques The aim of the project is to carefully explore make or buy decision making in manufacturing organizations. In order to carry out a study on make or buy decision making for manufacturing organization. Books, journals, magazines and the internet will be used as a good source to acquire materials which aids in understanding the subject matter. There are different forms and sorts of data which should be considered before selecting the appropriate material. There are two sources of data one being primary and the other being secondary, the fundamental difference are primary data is data gathered at first hand from people in the general population or sample as the case may be. In contrast secondary data is the use and application of data that already exists usually from policy documents, newspapers, magazines and so on. Primary data can sometimes be expensive and can also take a while to collect data as a result of that the source of data that has been collected to build up this report will be mainly secondary. secondary source of data is of better quality because it is usually published so therefore unbiased which means it is not skewed in the favour of research objective. (Robson c., 2002). Qualitative and Quantitative Research approach Qualitative research can be described as an exploratory kind of research; its main purpose is to uncover prevailing trends of an opinion. The approach is concerned with words rather than numbers. This approach aims to investigate an in-depth understanding of its subject matter. Qualitative research is centrally concerned with understanding a thing rather than measuring them. (Robson.c, 2002). Quantitative research In general terms can be described as an approach that is primarily concerned with numbers how it relates to each other rather than words Quantitative research seeks to set up connecting relationships between two or more variables using statically method for testing of the variable’s strength and importance of its relationship. In this project the Qualitative research method will be used extensively as it allows for exploration of the subject to gain in-depth understanding Many models have being put forward as frame work for research design, below is a model that consist of the key components to a successful research. Adapted from Robson (2002). Purpose(s) What is the research trying to achieve? Is the author seeking to change something substantial as a result of this study or trying to explore the effectiveness of something? Theory- Where will the author find the theory that will direct and channel his research? What way will the theory be translated? Research questions- To what questions posed by the author are the research geared to provide answers for? What study is needed to know to correctly answer the research questions? How feasible are the questions poised given the time and the resources available? Methods-What techniques will be used to effectively collect data? To what degree will the data be analysed? How will the author communicate to other academics/ readers the authenticity of data collected Sampling Strategy- How will data be collected? Who will the author seek to interview? What will be the best way in balancing the need to be selective with the need to collect important data needed? Project Plan References. 1. Slack, N., chambers, s. 2007. Operations management. 2. Krajewski, L., Ritzman, L. 2007. Operations management. 3. Parmigiani, A. 2007. Why do firms make or buy? Investigation of concurrent sourcing strategic management Journal 28: 285-311. 4 He, D., Nickerson, JA. 2006. Why do firms make or buy? Efficiency, appropriability, and competition in the trucking industry. Strategic Organisation 4: 43-69. 5. Ashall, D. 2010. Lecture notes on procurement and supply chain management. 6. Mitchell, L. 2010. Lecture notes on Manufacturing Strategy. 7. Robson, C. (2002). Real world research. Michigan: Blackwell publishers.