Friday, April 5, 2019

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Distribution Channels In FMCG

Effectiveness and Efficiency of diffusion melodic lines In FMCGFast Moving Consumer Goods commonly know FMCG is as the name suggests is the well-nigh demanded crossings in the mart. It admits everything from food items exchangeable flour, biscuits, ice creams, etc to body products soaps, instance creams to cig argonttes to beverages, etc. consumers look at these things in their everyday life so they investsa good portion of in that respect income in these things. There atomic number 18 so m slightly(prenominal) companies which atomic number 18 relations in FMCG products like HUL, Dabur, Cavin Cargon, AMUL dealing in dairy products, etc. By the vary temperament of the product the companies be seeing this as a great source of income. As tumid number of companies are looking this vault of heaven as a makeable venture, so for sustaining in that respect position and gain new trade they concur to stupefy some(prenominal) thing unique in their products or services to gain position in the market or to sustain there.In modern business dispersal net subject field has a great disturb on the success of every business. In the FMCG segment the role of a excellent diffusion enchant becomes even more crucial because the delivery of FMCG Product is conmulctd to day to day basic. Hence in order to survive and thrive in a spunkyly agonistical market you soak up to birth a distribution take everyplace which has no problem at any point of the distribution broadcast.The train out which is of crucial importance to survive in any business is the understanding of the mind of the individual consumers. What are main characteristics which consumer consider while making a purchasing decision regarding FMCG Product.In order to strive mightily decision regarding all these aspects the accompany requires a complete knowledge of the problems faced in distribution channel and what should be d cardinal in order to overcome all these problems. divulge inf rastructure facilities al first base for improve their supply chain. FMCG sector is too likely to benefit from growing demand in the market. Because of the pathetic per capita consumption for almost all the products in the country, FMCG companies acquit immense possibilities for growth. And if the companies are able to change the mind-set of the consumers, i.e. if they are able to take the consumers to branded products and turn new generation products, they would be able to get down uplifteder growth in the near future.Table of ContentsIntroductionA Distribution Channel is a set of interdependent organizations (intermediaries) involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.Channel decisions are among the most important decisions that management faces and go away selectly affect every new(prenominal) marketing decision.Functions of Distribution Channel exclusively use up Up Scarce Resources only May Often Be Performed Better Through SpecializationAll Can Often Be Shifted Among Channel MembersTypes of Distribution ChannelA channel of distribution or trade channel is the path or route on which goods keep from manufacturing businesss to ultimate consumers or industrial users. In other words, it is the distribution network through which a producer puts his product in the hands of actual users. The channel of distribution acknowledges the original producer, the final bribeer and any middlemen-either whole barterr or seller. The term middleman refers to any institution or individual in the channel which either acquires title to the goods or negotiates or sells in the capacity of an means or broker. nonwithstanding facilitating agencies that commit or assist in marketing function are not included as middlemen in the channel of distribution.This is because they neither acquire title to the goods nor negotiate purchase or sale. Such facilitating agencies include affirms, rai lways, roadways, warehouses, redress companies, advertising agencies, etc.The following diagram (chart) is illustrative of the channel of distribution which whitethorn exist in a marketThe above chart indicates that the number of middlemen may vary. If there is direct sale by the produce to the consumers and then there is no middleman. But that is very rare. As the chart shows the producer may sell goods to retailer who may then sell the very(prenominal) to consumers. The producer may sell goods to wholesalers who may inturn sell to retailers and the retailer may sell to consumers. The fourth alternative channel of distribution is when any agent/ corpus intervenes between the producer and retailers and acts as a middlemen. The agent is appointed by the producer for the sale of goods to the retailers. Another alternative channel is there when producers agent sells goods to wholesalers who sell to retailers. Agent/dealer is an independent somebody/firm buyinggoods and change th em to retailers. Agent/dealer may also sell to wholesalers who may then sell to retailers and goods are thus make available to consumers. In the channel of distribution there may be more than one agent/dealer and wholesaler.A brief explanation of different convey of distribution is given belowManufacturer Customer This is also cognise as direct selling because no middlemen are involved. A producer may sell flat through his own retail stores, for example, Bata. This is the simplest and the wretchedest channel. It is fast and economicalal. minor(ip) producers and producers of perishable commodities also sell without delay to the local consumers. Big firms adopt direct selling in order to cut distribution cost and because they have sufficient facilities to sell directly to the consumers. The producer or the entrepreneur himself carry throughs all the marketing activities.Manufacturer retail merchantCustomer This is one tip distribution channel having one middleman, i.e., re tailer. In this channel, the producer sells to boastful retailers like de trigger offmental stores and chain stores who in turn sell to customer. This channel is very popular in the distribution of consumer durables such as refrigerators, T V sets, washing machines, character referencewriters, etc. This channel of distribution is very popular these days because of effect of departmental stores, super markets and other big retail stores. The retailers purchase in enlarged quantities from the producer and perform certain marketing activities in order to sell the product to the ultimate consumers.Manufacturer WholesalerRetailerCustomer This is the traditional channel of distribution. There are two middlemen in this channel of distribution, namely, wholesaler and retailer. This channel is most suitable for the products with capaciously scattered market. It is employ in the distribution of consumer products like groceries, drugs, cosmetics, etc. It is sort of suitable for small sc ale producers whose product line is narrow and who require the expert services and promotional support of wholesalers.Selection Criteria of a Distribution Channel patch selecting a distribution channel, the entrepreneur should comparability the costs, sales intensity and profits expected from alternative channels of distribution. In order to select the right channel for distributing his product, a small-scale shaper should keep in mind the following considerationsMarket Considerations The nature of the market is a key factor influencing the choice of channels of distribution. The following features of the market should be considered to find the channelsConsumer or Industrial Market If the product is meant for industrial users, the channel of distribution forget be a short one. This is because industrial users buy in a large quantity and the producer bottom of the inning easily establish a direct contact with them. But in case for goods meant for consumers, retailers may have t o be included in the channels of distribution.Number and location of buyers When the number of capability customers is small or the market is geographically located in a limited area, direct selling is easy and economical. In case of large number of customers, use of wholesalers and retailers becomes necessary.Size of order Direct selling is convenient and economical where customers place order in big push-down lists as in case of industrial goods. But where the product is sold in small quantities, middlemen are used to distribute such products. A manufacturer may use different channels for different types of buyers. He may sell directly to big retail stores and may use wholesalers to sell to small retailers.Customers buying habits The customer buying habits like the snip he is willing to spend, the desire for credit, the preference of personal attention and one stop shopping signifi deliverly affect the choice of distribution channels.Product Considerations The type and nature o f the product influence the number and type of middlemen to be chosen for distributing the product. The important factors with respect to the product are as followsUnit value Products of low unit value and common use are generally sold through middlemen, as they butt endnot bear the cost of direct selling. On the other hand, expensive consumer goods and industrial products are sold directly by the producers.Perishability Perishable products like vegetables, fruits and bakery items have relatively short channels, as they finishnot withstand repeated handling. Goods, which are subject to frequent changes in fashion and style, are generally distributed through short channels, as the producer has to maintain close and continuous touch with the market.Bulk and weight Heavy and bulky products are distributed directly to minimize handling costs. Coal, bricks, stones, etc., are some examples.Standardisation Custom-made and non-standardised products usually pass through short channels ref erable to the need for direct contact between the producer and the consumers. Standardized and mass-made goods green goddess be distributed through middlemen.Technical nature Industrial products requiring demonstration, installation and aftersale service are often sold directly. The consumer products of expert nature are generally sold through retailers.Product line An entrepreneur producing a spacious-eyed range of products may find it economical to set up its own retail outlets. On the other hand, firms with one or two products find it profitable to distribute through wholesalers and retailers.Age of the product A new product needs greater promotional effort and few middlemen may like to cope it. As the product gains acceptance in the market, more middlemen may be employed for its distribution.Middlemen Considerations The cost and power of distribution depend largely upon the nature and type of middlemen as given in the following factors handiness When middlemen as desired ar e not available, an entrepreneur may have to establish his own distribution network. Non-availability of middlemen may arise when they are handling com front-runneritive products, as they do not like to cover up more brands.Attitudes Middlemen who do not like a firms marketing policies may refuse to handle its products. For instance, some wholesalers and retailers demand sole selling rights or a guarantee against fall in prices.Services Use of those middlemen is profitable who provide financing, storage, promotion and aftersale services.Sale Potential An entrepreneur generally prefers a dealer who offers the great potential volume of sales.Costs Choice of a channel should be made after burnvas the costs of distribution through alternative channels.Company Considerations The nature, size and objectives of the business firm also picnic an important role in the selection of distribution channel. It includes financial resources, marketstanding, volume of production, desire for sta mp down of channel, services provided by manufacturers, etc. For example a company with substantial financial resources need not rely in like manner much on the middlemen and can afford to reduce the levels of distribution. Similarly a company desiring to exercise greater control over channel will prefer a shorter channel.After deciding the number of middlemen, an entrepreneur has to select the particular dealers through whom he will distribute his products. While selecting a particular wholesaler or retailer, the following factors should be taken into considerationa. Location of dealers business expositb. Financial position and credit standing of the dealerc. Knowledge and experience of the dealerd. Storage and saleroom facilities of the dealere. Ability of the dealer to secure adequate business and to cover the marketf. Capacity of the dealer to provide aftersale serviceg. General reputation of the dealer and his sales forceh. Willingness of the dealer to handle the entrepreneu rs productsi. full stop of co-operation and promotion service he is willing to providej. Nature of other products, if any handled by the dealer. destiny for Distribution ChannelWhy are all these layers needed in distribution ? Why cant a producer simply sell to a retailer, who sells to a consumer? Its a fair question, and in some cases, that is exactly how it happens. But the fact is that many producers are either too small or too large to handle all the necessary functions themselves to gettheir products to market.Consider the small, specialty manufacturer who is terrific at making fine leather handbags but may not have the expertise to market its products as wellspring as it makes them, or they may not have the funds to hire a police squad of full-time salespeople to court the customers and secure the orders. An intercessorwho works for several small, noncompeting firms can easily handle those functions cost-effectively. An intermediary who specializes in importing and export ing can handle the intricacies of customs paperwork, overseas shipping, and foreign markets, too.Conversely, large companies need intermediaries because they are also in the business of manufacturing, not marketing. Turning out tens of thousands of cases of salving drinks, for instance, do you sound off Pepsi has time to take and fill individual orders from households? Channel members like wholesalers and retailersare useful because they are top hat at specific aspects of sales in their markets, leaving the manufacturers to do what they do best-which is turn out the best possible product.Having a distribution channel breaks the whole buying and selling process and all its colligate negotiations into manageable tasks, each performed by companies that specialize in certain skills. Using an import wholesaler, for example, can be handy because they know the laws and customs of the suppliers nations and they generally offer their own lines of credit so the retailer rule have to dea l with currency exchange or negotiate payment terms with a bank in another country.Another advantage of the distribution channel is its ability to even out the pictorial ebbs and flows of a supply chain. This comes from the ability of some channel members to store excess goods until they are needed, and to stockpile goods in anticipation of seasonal sales peaks. Depending on how close their relationships, channel members may also work together to purchase goods or services in greater quantity at discounts, passing the savings on to customers.Even for consumers, the distribution chain is handy-beyond handy, in fact It has become a necessity in our society. What if there were no supermarkets, for instance? Can you imagine how much more time and money you would spend having to buy every item at its source? How practical would it be to run out to the nearest promote to pick up a quart of milk and some salad ingredients on your way home from work?FMCG SectorOverviewFMCG is an acronym forFast Moving Consumer Goods, which refer to things that we buy from local supermarkets on daily undercoat, the things that have high turnover and are relatively cheaper. Products which have a quick turnover, and relatively low cost are known as Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). FMCG products are those that get replaced within a year. Examples of FMCG generally include a wide range of frequently purchased consumer products such as toiletries, soap, cosmetics, tooth cleaning products, shaving products and detergents, as well as other non-durables such as glassware, bulbs, batteries, paper products, and plastic goods. FMCG may also include pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, case food products, soft drinks, tissue paper, and chocolate bars.A subset of FMCGs is Fast Moving Consumer Electronics which include innovative electronic products such as mobile phones, MP3 players, digital cameras, GPS Systems and Laptops. These are replaced more frequently than other electronic products . ashen goods in FMCG refer to household electronic items such as Refrigerators, T.Vs, Music Systems, etc.These types of goods are needful frequently by consumers and so a large part of the monthly salary or income will be spent on buying all the goods listed on the consumers shopping list. New players keep join the FMCG circles but find the going tough unless they have a well planned strategy a massive with large cash reserves for their product promotion. A particular FMCG company might be a strong urban market leader, but will still find it tough to enter the outlandish markets or a new Indian state or area.Although FMCG companies generate a large volume of sales and money, they are always under pressure as they keep facing a lot of competition from their fellow competitors. Due to this, the FMCG companies try to do their level best in maintaining a fine balance in their profits and the product price. Thus they keep facing new gainsays on their margins month after month.One o f the key factors for an FMCG company to do well is a proper distribution network. If a distribution network of a particular FMCG company is well oiled, then that particular FMCG Company will definitely find the going much easier in the market. But companies have to allot a large chunk of their finances in developing and fine tuning their distribution networks.The promotion of a product of an FMCG company too is considered very crucial for its success. The market has many players. Every FMCG company has to fight for its blank s abuse and audience in the Indian market. Thus, when a multinational company enters the Indian market, it creates an even bigger challenge to the existing players on the FMCG scene. If the promotion is done well, then the manufacturing of the product can even be outsourced. This can save valuable finance for a company. This in turn will help the company to utilize their energies on other aspects of their product. Some of the top players on the FMCG scene in India are Hindustan Unilever Ltd., ITC (Indian Tobacco Company), Nestl India and Dabur India.So, we can say that FMCG are the products which are change quickly at relatively low costSold in large quantitiesHave low absolute profit but high cumulative profitSector PerformanceFMCG is one of the few sectors that has been unscratched and has shown consistent growth despite economic recession and this can be proved by some of the leading magazines articles likeAccording to Business Standard-FMCG resilient to the economic slowdown and dip in consumer sentiment.According to Economic times it is one of the very few sectors undergoing MA in recent times.Economic times also comment that Indian rural market in untapped and unpenetrated.The growth in this sector is also evident from the fact that many FMCG companies are cooking to foray into West Asia, South Africa and Egypt.FMCG industryprovides a wide range of consumables and accordingly the amount of money circulated against FMCG products i s also very high. The competition among FMCG manufacturers is also growing and as a result of this, investment in FMCG industry is also increasing, specifically in India, where FMCG industry is regarded as the fourth largest sector with total market size of US$13.1 billion. FMCG Sector in India is estimated to grow 60% by 2010. FMCG industry is regarded as the largest sector in New Zealand which accounts for 5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Some of the merits of FMCG industry, which made this industry as a potential one are low operational cost, strong distribution networks, presence of renowned FMCG companies. Population growth is another factor which is responsible behind the success of this industry.Some of the well known FMCG companies are Sara LeeNestlReckitt BenckiserUnileverProcter GambleCoca-ColaCarlsbergKleenexGeneral MillsPepsiMars etc.FMCG industrycreates a wide range of job opportunities. This industry is a stable, diverse, challenging and high profile industry provi ding a wide range of job categories like sales, supply chain, finance, marketing, operations, purchasing, human resources, product nurture, and general management.Indian FMCG SectorFMCG is the fourth largest sector in the Indian Economy with a total market size of Rs. 60,000 crores. FMCG sector generates 5% of total factory employment in the country and is creating employment for three million people, especially in small towns and rural India.The FMCG sector in India is a sector which is dominated by a high level competition between all the players. This particular sector includes MNCs as well as local Indian companies. Certain companies are leaders in a particular state or area. While some of the companies are very strong in the rural areas compared to the urban areas. Some of the most decent companies in the FMCG sector are Hindustan Unilever Ltd., ITC (Indian Tobacco Company), Nestl India, GCMMF (AMUL), Dabur India, Asiatic Paints (India), Cadbury India, Britannia Industries, Procter Gamble Hygiene and Health Care and Marico Industries. All these companies have a proper distribution network along with proper product promotion tools which have helped them to regularly increase their sales and visibility on the Indian scene.Well-established distribution networks, as well as intense competition between the organised and unorganised segments are the characteristics of this sector. FMCG in India has a strong and competitive MNC presence across the entire value chain. It has been predicted that the FMCG market will reach to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015 from US $ billion 11.6 in 2003. The middle class and the rural segments of the Indian population are the most promising market for FMCG, and give brand makers the opportunity to convert them to branded products. Most of the product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin disturbance, shampoos, etc, in India, have low per capita consumption as well as low brainwave level, but the potential for growth is huge.The In dian Economy is surging ahead by leaps and bounds, keeping pace with rapid urbanization, increased literacy levels, and rising per capita income.The big firms are growing bigger and small-time companies are detection up as well. According to the reputation conducted by AC Nielsen, 62 of the top 100 brands are owned by MNCs, and the balance by Indian companies. Fifteen companies own these 62 brands, and 27 of these are owned by Hindustan Lever. Pepsi is at number three followed by Thums Up. Britannia takes the fifth place, followed by Colgate (6), Nirma (7), Coca-Cola (8) and Parle (9). These are figures the soft drink and cigarette companies have always shied away from revealing. Personal trouble, cigarettes, and soft drinks are the three biggest categories in FMCG. Between them, they account for 35 of the top 100 brands.Hindustan Unilever Limited has been operating in India from a long time. They are Indias largest FMCG Company and are also one of Indias largest exporters. The l ist of their popular products is a very large one. Some of their popular products are Lifebuoy, Rexona, Lux, Liril, Lipton Tea, Brooke Bond Tea, Bru Coffee, Pepsodent, Surf, Rin, Wheel Laundry Detergent and Kissan. The company has an excellent research centre which was established in 1958 and has a strong team of highly qualified scientists. Recently they have launched new projects like Ayush Ayurvedic Products Services and Pureit Water Purifiers.ITC which was set up in 1910 in India was earlier known as Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. ITC has a vast presence in wide pasture of products and some of them are greeting cards, cigarettes, paperboards, packaging, branded apparel, foods confectionery and FMCG products. ITC has proved its worth by being one of Indias biggest foreign exchange earners. Although it already has many leading products from a long time, it is recently wooing over successfully new customers in its businesses of branded apparel, packaged foods confe ctionery and greeting cards stationery.Nestl first made its presence in India in 1912. It has always managed to get itself listed in Indias Most Respected Companies. This has been possible due to its practice of producing products of a global standard in India. It has also been able to provide customer felicity to the consumers of its products.The success of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) has proved that a cooperative too can grow into a top class company if it is backed by proper vision, hard work and a quality product. This has helped it to become the largest food product marketing organization in India. Some of its popular products are Amul Ice cream, Amul Milk, Amul Butter, Amul Shrikhand, Amul Milk Powder, Amul Ghee and Amul Cheese.Thus the above four examples show a variety of factors which are responsible for turning a company into a leading FMCG company.The top 10 companies in India are as followsThe FMCG sector can be sub classified intoPersonal Car e The personal dispense category has the largest number of brands, i.e., 21, inclusive of Lux, Lifebuoy, Fair and Lovely, Vicks, and Ponds. There are 11 HLL brands in the 21, aggregating Rs. 3,799 crore or 54% of the personal care category. Cigarettes account for 17% of the top 100 FMCG sales, and just below the personal care category. ITC alone accounts for 60% volume market share and 70% by value of all separate cigarettes in India.Foods The foods category in FMCG is gaining popularity with a swing of launches by HLL, ITC, Godrej, and others. This category has 18 major brands, aggregating Rs. 4,637 crore. approach and Amul slug it out in the powders segment. The food category has also seen innovations like softies in ice creams, chapattis by HLL, ready to eat rice by HLL and pizzas by both GCMMF and Godrej Pillsbury. This category seems to have faster development than the stagnating personal care category. Amul, Indias largest foods company, has a good presence in the food cate gory with its ice-creams, curd, milk, butter, cheese, and so on. Britannia also ranks in the top 100 FMCG brands, dominates the biscuits category and has launched a series of products at various prices.Household care In the household care category (like mosquito repellents), Godrej and Reckitt are two players. Goodknight from Godrej, is worth above Rs 217 crore, followed by Reckitts Mortein at Rs 149 crore. In the shampoo category, HLLs Clinic and Sunsilk make it to the top 100, although PGs Head and Shoulders and Pantene are also trying hard to be positioned on top. Clinic is nearly double the size of Sunsilk.Herbal care Dabur is among the top five FMCG companies in India and is a herbal specialist. With a turnover of Rs. 19 billion (approx. US$ 420 million) in 2005-2006, Dabur has brands like Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola and Real.Paint Asian Paints is enjoying a formidable presence in the Indian sub-continent, Southeast Asia, Far East, Middle East, South Pacific , Caribbean, Africa and Europe. Asian Paints is Indias largest paint company, with a turnover of Rs.22.6 billion (around USD 513 million). Forbes Global magazine, USA, ranked Asian Paints among the 200 Best Small Companies in the WorldChocolates/Confectionary Cadbury India is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery market with a 70% market share and is ranked number two in the total food drinks market. Its popular brands include Cadburys Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Eclairs, and Gems. The Rs.15.6 billion (USD 380 Million) Marico is a leading Indian group in consumer products and services in the Global Beauty and Wellness space.Outlook for FMCG SectorThere is a huge growth potential for all the FMCG companies as the per capita consumption of almost all products in the country is amongst the lowest in the world. once more the demand or prospect could be increased further if these companies can change the consumers mindset and offer new generation products. Earlier, Indian consumers we re using non-branded apparel, but today, clothes of different brands are available and the same consumers are willing to pay more for branded quality clothes. Its the quality, promotion and innovation of products, which can chock up many sectors.MethodologyExploratory researchThe exploratory research design is appropriate for any any problems in which a very little knowledge is available. An Exploratory study is in the nature of a preliminary phase and is absolutely essential in order to obtain a proper commentary of problem in hand. So it is helpful in breaking broad and vague problems into smaller, more very(prenominal) sub problem statements, hopefully, in the form of specific hypothesis.In this study the exploratory research has been used to frame structure questionnaires, individuals with knowledge and ideas have been interviewed to get the idea to frame structure questionnaire. A part from books and journals has been used to gather instruction about the insurance and the i nsurance industry.Data CollectionIn this study internal and external source for data army had been used. In the internal and external sources of data collection these two types of data comes into picturePrimary DataSecondary DataPrimary DataAll the primary data for the purpose of the study were obtained by interviewing the retailers with the help of a questionnaire. Questionnaires were framed on the basis of product its competition. The questions were designed in such a way as to elicit maximum information and data.Secondary DataSecondary data has been collected from books and websites.Internet,,,www.coca-colaindia.comMagazines Business World Management and engineering scienceQuestionnaireThere can be two types of questionnaire.Questionnaire for Whole sellersName Age ..Area . Years in the Business. ..Date.http// Which coca cola c old drink brand sells the most?Coke b. ThumsUp c.Limca d. Sprite e. Fanta f. Maaza g.OthersQ2. Which mineral water sells the most?Kinley b. Aquafina c. Bisleri d. Local brandsQ3. What type of package cold drinks sells the most?300ml bottle b. 600 ml pet bottle c.

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