Saturday, August 31, 2019
CHAPTER 14 Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations Chapter Summary This chapter provides an overview of private-sector labor-management relations in the United States, with brief attention to public-sector differences and international labor relations. After a model of labor-management relations and a context for current relationships are provided, various aspects of the process of collective bargaining are described. Cooperative forms of labor-management relations are then presented. Finally, an explanation is given for how changes in competitive challenges are influencing labor-management interactions. Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: 1. Describe what is meant by collective bargaining and labor relations. 2. Identify the labor relations goals of management, labor unions, and society. 3. Explain the legal environmentÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on labor relations. 4. Describe the major labor-management interactions: organizing, contract negotiations, and contract administration. 5. Describe the new, less adversarial approaches to labor-management relations. 6. Explain how changes in competitive challenges (e.g., product-market competition and globalization) are influencing labor-management interactions. 7. Explain how labor relations in the public sector differ from labor relations in the private sector. Extended Chapter Outline Note: Key terms appear in boldface and are listed in the Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter VocabularyÃ¢â¬ section. Opening Vignette: Labor Relations and the Bottom Line The main issue in the 54-day strike by the United Auto Workers (UAW) at two General Motors parts plants was job security and whether GM would invest in plants in the United States or continue its effort to cut U.S. employment and shift production overseas to reduce labor costs. The strike postponed all of GMÃ¢â¬â¢s plant operations, which caused annual earnings and market share. GM plans to spin off a new unit, which would eliminate 200,000 of UAW workers from the payroll. Ford is thinking about doing the same thing but has postponed the move because of UAW opposition. I. IntroductionÃ¢â¬âLabor-management relations are complex, and many are in transition as competitive challenges force a realignment of management and worker interests. The need for many U.S. companies to become smaller and more efficient translates into actions (job loss) that are at cross-purposes with the interests of union members. II. The Labor Relations Framework (text Figure 14.1 and TM 14.1) A. John Dunlop suggested a labor relations systems that consists of four elements: 1. An environmental context (technology, market forces, etc.). 2. Participants: employees and their unions, management, and the government. 3. A web of rules (rules of the game) that describe the process by which labor and management interact. 4. Ideology (acceptance of the system and participants). B. Katz and Kochan have presented a model that focuses on the decision-making process and outcomes. 1. At the strategic level, management makes basic choices such as whether to work with its union or develop nonunion operations. 2. These labor and management choices made at the strategic level affect interaction at the second level, the functional level, where contract negotiations occur. 3. These strategic decisions also affect the workplace level, the arena in which the contract is administered. III. Goals and Strategies A. SocietyÃ¢â¬âLabor unionsÃ¢â¬â¢ major benefit to society throughout history has been the balancing of power and the institutionalization of industrial conflict in the least costly way. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA, 1935) sought to provide a legal framework conducive to collective bargaining. B. Management must decide whether to encourage or discourage the unionization of its employees. Based upon issues of wage cost, flexibility, and labor stability, as well as ideology, management must decide. If management has a union, it has the option of supporting a decertification vote, an election in which employees have a chance to vote out the union. C. Labor unions seek to give workers formal representation in setting the terms and conditions of employment. (See text Table 14.1 for categories of provisions in collective bargaining agreements). IV. Union Structure, Administration, and Membership A. National and international unions are composed of multiple local unions, and most are affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) (see Table 14.2 in the text for a list). In 1995, three major unions, the UAW, the United Steelworkers, and the International Association of Machinists, announced plans to merge by the year 2000. | | |A related reading from DushkinÃ¢â¬â¢s | |Annual Editions: Human Resources 99/00: | |(Ã¢â¬Å"HR Comes of AgeÃ¢â¬ by Michael Losey | 1. Craft unions are those that organize members of a particular skill or trade, such as electricians or plumbers. Craft unions are likely to be responsible for training programs called apprenticeships. 2. Industrial unions are made up of members who work in any number of positions in a given industry, such as the auto or steel industry. Whereas craft unions may wish to control the number of members, industrial unions wish to maximize the number of members. B. Local unions are frequently responsible for the negotiations of a contract as well as the day-to-day administration of the contract, including the grievance procedure. Typically, an industrial local corresponds to a single manufacturing facility. C. The AFL-CIO is a federation of national unions. It represents laborÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in the political process and provides numerous services to its members, in terms of research and education (text Figure 14.2). | | |A related reading from DushkinÃ¢â¬â¢s | |Annual Editions: Human Resources 99/00: | |(Ã¢â¬Å"Labor Deals a New HandÃ¢â¬ by Marc Cooper | D. Union security depends upon its ability to ensure a stability of members and dues. Unions typically negotiate a contract clause that defines the relationship it has to employees and that provides for an uninterrupted flow of dues. 1. A checkoff provision is an automatic deduction of union dues from an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s paycheck. 2. A closed shop is a union security provision under which a person must be a union member. 3. A union shop requires a person to join the union within a certain length of time after beginning employment. 4. An agency shop is similar to a union shop, but does not require union membership, only that an agency fee be paid. 5. Maintenance of membership requires only that those who join the union remain members through the life of the current contract. 6. Right-to-work lawsÃ¢â¬âAs a function of the Taft-Hartley amendment to the NLRA, states may decide to make mandatory union membership (or even dues paying) illegal. E. Union Membership and Bargaining PowerÃ¢â¬âEmployers are increasingly resisting unionization. Unions are making new attempts to organize new memberships and to provide new services. Union membership has consistently declined since 1950 and now stands at roughly 10 percent of private-sector employment (text Figure 14.3 and TM 14.2). Reasons for this decline are noted below: 1. Structural Changes in the EconomyÃ¢â¬âThese changes include decline in core manufacturing and increase in the service sector. But these changes, according to studies, only account for 25 percent of the overall union membership decline. 2. Increased Employer ResistanceÃ¢â¬âAlmost 50 percent of large employers in a survey reported that their most important labor goal was to remain union free. UnionsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to organize whole industries has declined, and therefore wages are rarely taken out of competition. Additionally, studies have shown that if a union wins an election, it is frequently the case that managers lose their jobs (see Figure 14.4 for the increase in unfair labor practices filed). | | |Competing by Meeting StakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ Needs: | |Is Strong Labor Relations Good for Business? | | | |Milwaukee-based Johnson Controls is not looking to cultivate a unionized work force. That is why it endures strikes at its seat| |making factories by UAW workers who were trying to negotiate their first collective bargaining contract with the company. Ford | |has taken a different view because it has begun a strong commitment with the UAW to be a competitive advantage. Ford realizes | |that it is not in the best interests of its employees to accept seats by replacement workers because their relationship with the| |union and respect for the team are too important to them. Finally, Johnson Controls agreed on a contract with the UAW at its | |two plants with help from Ford. | 3. Substitution with HRMÃ¢â¬âIn large nonunion companies, HRM policies and practices may encourage positive employee relations, and therefore union representation is not desired by employees. | | |Competing through Globalization: | |UAW Concedes Defeat at TransplantsÃ¢â¬âfor Now | | | |UAW is diverting its attention from the Japanese-owned assembly plants to the German-owned plants because the Japanese are | |turning their backs on the UAW. Transplant operations are tough to implement, but they are continuing to grow in this country | |and employment continues to shrink. Also, the UAW membership is beginning to shrink because it depends on the auto industry for| |its existence. Transplant operations usually offer pay and benefits and the social and political environments donÃ¢â¬â¢t support | |unions. BMW and Mercedes-Benz are willing to work with the U.S. auto union because it is easier to organize during economic | |times and they may be able to influence affairs with Germany. BMW pays workers hourly with bonuses as well as using a | |self-directed work team concept. These pay and benefits are attractive to the workers at this company. The union must also | |contend with plant expansions because employees find themselves considering job promotion or at least a move to a more appealing| |work slot. BMW and Mercedes-Benz are expanding both their factories and their payrolls. | 4. Substitution by Government RegulationÃ¢â¬âEmployment laws have been passed that reduce the areas in which unions can make a contribution. 5. Worker ViewsÃ¢â¬âThe lack of a U.S. history of feudalism and class distinctions has limited the class-consciousness needed to support a strong union movement. 6. Union ActionsÃ¢â¬âCorruption, resistance to obvious economic change, and openness to women and minorities have all hurt the perception of union. V. Legal FrameworkÃ¢â¬âLegislation and court decisions that provide the structure within which unions must operate have had an effect upon membership, bargaining power, and the degree to which unions and managements are successful in achieving their goals. The 1935 NLRA enshrined collective bargaining as the preferred mechanism for settling labor-management disputes. Section 7 of the act sets out the rights of employees, including the Ã¢â¬Å"right to self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing, and to engage in other concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining.Ã¢â¬ A. Unfair Labor Practices (ULPs)Ã¢â¬âEmployers: The National Labor Relations Act (1935) prohibits certain activities by both employers and labor unions. Section 8(a) of the NLRA contains ULPs by employers. 1. Employers cannot interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees in exercising their Section 7 rights. 2. Employers cannot dominate or interfere with a union. 3. Employers may not discriminate against an individual for exercising his or her right to join or assist a union. 4. Employers cannot refuse to bargain collectively with a certified union (other examples are given in text Table 14.3). B. Unfair Labor PracticesÃ¢â¬âLabor Unions: These were added by the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act. 1. These ULPs parallel those listed previously. For example, unions may not restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their Section 7 rights (see Table 14.4 in the text for additional examples). C. EnforcementÃ¢â¬âThe National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has the primary responsibility for enforcing the NLRA. 1. The NLRB is a five-member board appointed by the president. Additionally, there are 33 regional offices. 2. Only businesses involved in interstate commerce are covered by the NLRA and therefore subject to the NLRB. 3. The NLRB has two major functions: a. To conduct and certify representation elections. b. To prevent ULPs and to adjudicate them. 4. ULP charges are filed at and investigated by the regional offices. 5. The NLRB may defer to the partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ grievance process instead of holding a hearing. 6. The NLRB can issue a cease-and-desist order to halt a ULP. It may order reinstatement and back pay. The court of appeals can choose to enforce the NLRBÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. VI. Union and Management Interactions: Organizing A. Why Do Employees Join Unions?Ã¢â¬âIs it for wages and benefits? Do unions help increase wages and benefits? B. The Process and Legal Framework of OrganizingÃ¢â¬âAn election may be held if at least 30 percent of the employees in the bargaining unit sign authorization cards. A secret ballot election will be held. The union is certified by the NLRB if a simple majority of employees vote for it. 1. A decertification election may be held if no other election has been held within the year or if no contract is in force. 2. The NLRB must define the appropriate bargaining unit. The criterion they use is Ã¢â¬Å"mutuality of interestÃ¢â¬ of employees. 3. Certain categories of employees cannot be included. C. Organizing Campaigns: Management and Union Strategies and Tactics (see text Tables 14.5 and 14.6 for common campaign issues). 1. Table 14.7 in the text and TM 14.3 list employer strategies, legal and illegal, that are used during organizing campaigns. Additionally, note the significant increase in employer ULPs since the late 1960s. 2. The consequence of breaking the law in this situation is minimal, and discrimination against employees active in union organizing decreases organizing success. 3. The NLRB may set aside the results of an election if the employer has created Ã¢â¬Å"an atmosphere of confusion or fear of reprisals.Ã¢â¬ 4. Associate union membership provides a person who is not part of a bargaining unit with some of the services a full union member receives (access to insurance, credit cards, etc.). This is a strategy unions are trying in order to increase support. 5. Corporate campaigns seek to bring public, financial, or political pressure on employers during the organizing and negotiating process. Example: William Patterson, corporate affairs director of the Teamsters union, attended the 1996 Time Warner Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s annual meeting, where he unsuccessfully pushed a Teamsters proposal to split the chairman and CEO position into two separate positions. The Teamsters pension funds have assets of $48 billion and actively pursue strategies as stockholders to support their positions. VII. Union and Management Interaction: Contract NegotiationÃ¢â¬âBargaining structures, the range of employees and employers that are covered under a given contract, differ, as shown in text Table 14.8. A. The Negotiation ProcessÃ¢â¬âWalton and McKersie suggested that negotiations could be broken into four subprocesses: 1. Distributive bargaining occurs when the parties are attempting to divide a fixed economic pie into two parts. What one party gains, the other loses. 2. Integrative bargaining has a win-win focus; it seeks solutions beneficial to both sides. 3. Attitudinal structuring refers to behaviors that modify the relationships between the parties, for example, offering to share information or a meal. 4. Intraorganizational bargaining is the consensus-building and negotiations that go on between members of the same party. B. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s preparation for negotiations is critical to labor costs and productivity issues. The following steps are suggested: 1. Establish interdepartmental contract objectives among industrial relations and finance, production, and so on. 2. Review the old contract to focus on provisions needing change. 3. Prepare and analyze data on labor costs, your own and competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢. Data on grievances, compensation, and benefits must be examined as well. 4. Anticipate union demands by maintaining an awareness of the union perspective. 5. Establish the potential costs of various possible contract provisions. 6. Make preparations for a strike, including possible replacements, security, and supplier and customer. 7. Determine the strategy and logistics for the negotiators. C. Negotiation Stages and Tactics 1. The early stages may include many individuals, as union proposals are presented. 2. During the middle stages, each side makes decisions regarding priorities, theirs and the other partiesÃ¢â¬â¢. 3. In the final stage, momentum may build toward settlement or pressure may build as an impasse becomes more apparent. More small groups are used to address specific issues. 4. Getting to Yes by Fisher and Ury presents four principles of negotiations: a. Separate the people from the problem. b. Focus on interests, not positions. c. Generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do. d. Insist that the results be based on some objective standard. D. Bargaining Power, Impasses, and Impasse ResolutionÃ¢â¬âAn important determinant of the outcomes of negotiations is the relative bargaining power of each party. Strikes impose various economic costs on both sides and therefore, in part, determine the power. E. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s Willingness to Take a StrikeÃ¢â¬âWillingness is determined by the answers to two questions. 1. Can the company remain profitable over the long run if it agrees to the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s demands? 2. Can the company continue to operate in the short run despite a strike. 3. The following factors help determine whether management is able to take a strike: a. Product DemandÃ¢â¬âIf itÃ¢â¬â¢s strong, there is greater potential loss for management. b. Product PerishabilityÃ¢â¬âA strike timed with perishability of a crop results in permanent revenue loss. c. TechnologyÃ¢â¬âA capital-intensive firm is less dependent on labor for continued operation. d. Availability of Replacement WorkersÃ¢â¬â(Note that the Clinton Administration issued an executive order that at the time of publication was under an injunctive order. This executive order prohibits federal contractors from permanently replacing striking workers). e. Multiple Production Sites and Staggered ContractsÃ¢â¬âThese permit the shifting of work from a struck site. f. Integrated FacilitiesÃ¢â¬âIf parts are not available from a struck plant, other facilities may be shut down. g. Lack of Substitutes for the ProductÃ¢â¬âA strike is less costly if customers cannot purchase substitute goods. F. Impasse-Resolution Procedures: Alternatives to Strikes 1. Mediation is provided by the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. While a mediator has no formal authority to force a solution, he or she acts as a facilitator for the parties, trying to help find a way to resolve an impasse. 2. A fact finder is most commonly used in the public sector. The fact finderÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to investigate and report on the reasons for the dispute and both sidesÃ¢â¬â¢ positions. 3. Arbitration is a process through which a neutral party makes a final and binding decision. Traditionally, rights arbitration (the interpretation of contract terms) is widely accepted, while interest arbitration (deciding upon the outcome of contract negotiation) is used much less frequently. VIII. Union and Management Interactions: Contract Administration A. The grievance procedure is a process developed to resolve labor management disputes over the interpretation and implementation of the contract. This happens on a day-to-day basis. 1. The WWII War Labor Board first institutionalized the use of a third-party neutral, called an arbitrator (now, the final step in the grievance process). 2. The effectiveness of grievance procedures may be judged on three criteria: a. How well are day-to-day problems resolved? b. How well does the process adjust to changing circumstances? c. In multi-unit contracts, how well does the process handle local contract issues? 3. The duty of fair representation is mandated by the NLRA and requires that all bargaining-unit members, whether union members or not, have equal access to and appropriate representation in the grievance process. An individual union member may sue the union over negligent or discriminatory representation. 4. Most grievance procedures have several steps prior to arbitration, each including representatives from increasingly higher levels of management and the union (Text Table 14.9 and TM 14.4). 5. Arbitration is a final and binding step. The Supreme Court, through three cases known as the SteelworkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Trilogy, confirmed the credibility and binding nature of the arbitratorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. 6. Criteria arbitrators use to reach decisions include: a. Did the employee know the rule and the consequences of violating it? b. Was the rule applied in a consistent and predictable way? c. Were the facts collected in a fair and systematic way? d. Did the employee have the right to question the facts and present a defense? e. Does the employee have the right of appeal? f. Is there progressive discipline? g. Are there mitigating circumstances? B. New Labor-Management Strategies 1. There are signs of a transformation from an adversarial approach to a less adversarial and more constructive approach to union-management relations. 2. The transformation includes increasing worker involvement and participation and reorganizing work to increase flexibility. | | |Competing through High-Performance Work Systems: | |Look WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pushing Productivity | | | |Aluminum Co. of America is working to create a high performance work system within its plant by setting up a labor-management | |partnership and spur productivity, protect jobs, and as using unions as consultants. The International Association of | |Machinists is implementing a revolutionary change in the way unions view cooperation with management. The goal is to protect | |workersÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs and pay by making their employers more competitive. By developing expertise in new work systems, unions have a | |chance to make themselves valuable to employers battling todayÃ¢â¬â¢s intense global and domestic competition. Partnerships can also| |dilute the opposition many executives feel toward unions. However, the most willing unions still battle over wages. The IAM | |has opted for a soft-sell approach, marketing itself as a resource for employers. The one payoff is that unions get mo re jobs | |for its members even if it canÃ¢â¬â¢t win election battles against nonunion contractors. | 3. Union leaders have frequently resisted such change, fearing an erosion of their influence. 4. In the Electromation case, the NLRB ruled that setting up worker-management committees was a violation of the NLRA, given certain circumstances (see Table 14.10 for a description of what makes teams illegal). 5. Polaroid recently dissolved an employee committee when the U.S. Department of Labor claimed it was a violation. 6. In a third case, the NLRB ruled that worker-management safety committees were illegal because they were dominated by management. 7. These new approaches (with the boundaries of legality) to labor relations may add to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. Table 14.11 in the text and TM 14.5 illustrate the patterns of traditional and transformational approaches. IX. Labor Relations Outcomes A. StrikesÃ¢â¬âSee Table 14.12 in the text for U.S. strike data. Note that strikes occur very infrequently. B. Wages and BenefitsÃ¢â¬âIn 1997, private-sector unionized workers received, on average, wages that were 28 percent higher than nonunion counterparts. 1. The union-nonunion gap is most likely overestimated due in part to the ease of organizing higher skilled (therefore more highly paid) workers. The Ã¢â¬Å"union threatÃ¢â¬ more than likely causes an underestimation of the differences. The net difference is close to 10 percent. 2. Unions influence the way in which pay is given (across-the-board wages on top of occupational wage rates). Promotions are in large part based on seniority. | | |A related reading from DushkinÃ¢â¬â¢s | |Annual Editions: Human Resources 99/00: | |(Ã¢â¬Å"Off the Tenure TrackÃ¢â¬ by Barbara McKenna | C. Productivity 1. Unions are believed to decrease productivity in three ways: a. The union pay advantage motivates management to use more capital per worker, which is an inefficiency. b. Union contracts may limit work load, and so on. c. Strikes and other job actions result in some lost productivity. 2. Unions, alternatively, may increase productivity: a. Unions provide more efficient communication with management, which may reduce turnover. b. The use of seniority decreases the competition between workers. c. The presence of a union may encourage management to tighten up in terms of consistency on work rules, and so on. 3. Overall, studies have concluded that union workers are more productive than nonunion workers although the explanation is not clear. Example: Between 1978 and 1982, Ford lost 47 percent of sales. Today, Ford uses one-half as many workers to make a car as they did during that period. A major factor in FordÃ¢â¬â¢s increased productivity has been the improvement in their labor-management relationship. Management has made a strong effort to increase employee involvement. The Walton Hills plant outside of Cleveland, Ohio, is given as an example of a change from an adversarial relationship to a more cooperative approach that allowed for a change of work rules which kept the plant open. D. Profits and Stock PerformanceÃ¢â¬âThese may suffer under unionization if costs are raised. Recent studies have shown negative effects on profit and shareholder wealth. These research findings describe the average effects of unions. The consequences of more innovative union-management relationships for profits and stock performance are less clear. X. The International ContextÃ¢â¬âThe United States has both the largest number of union members and the lowest unionization rate of any Western European country or Japan (Text Table 14.13). A number of potential explanations exist. A. The growing globalization of markets (EC common market, NAFTA, etc.) will continue to put pressure on labor costs and productivity. Unless U.S. unions can increase productivity or organize new production facilities, union membership may continue to decline. B. The United States differs from Western Europe in the degree of formal worker participation in decision making. Work councils and codetermination are mandated by law in Germany. XI. The Public SectorÃ¢â¬âDuring the 1960s and 1970s, unionization in the public sector increased dramatically. By 1997, 37 percent of government employees were covered by a union contract. Strikes are illegal at the federal level and in many states for government workers. Chapter Vocabulary These terms are defined in the Ã¢â¬Å"Extended Chapter OutlineÃ¢â¬ section. Web of Rules Decertification Craft Union Industrial Union Local Union AFL-CIO Checkoff Provision Closed Shop Union Shop Agency Shop Maintenance of Membership Right-to-Work Laws Unfair Labor Practices (ULPs) National Labor Relations Act, 1935 Taft-Hartley Act, 1947 National Labor Relations Board Associate Union Membership Corporate Campaigns Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining Attitudinal Structuring Intraorganizational Bargaining Getting to Yes Mediation Fact Finder Grievance Procedure Arbitration Duty of Fair Representation Electromation Case Discussion Questions 1. Why do employees join unions? Employees join unions because of dissatisfaction with wages, benefits, working conditions, and supervisory method. Employees believe that collective voice (representation) will increase the likelihood of improvement. Unionization provides a better balance of power between management and employees (as a group). 2. What has been the trend in union membership in the United States, and what are the underlying reasons for the trend? Since 1950, union membership has consistently declined as a percentage of employment to approximately 16 percent of all employment. Students may suggest a number of reasons for this (as discussed in the text): decline in the manufacturing Ã¢â¬Å"coreÃ¢â¬ industries, increase in employer union resistance, more frequently adopted progressive HRM policies, increase in employment legislation, and a lack of union adaptation. 3. What are the consequences for management and owners of having a union represent employees? Various consequences may occur depending on the quality of the union-management relationship. Management may find less flexibility, higher wage and benefit costs, higher productivity, and a negative impact on stock price and profitability. 4. What are the general provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, and how does it affect labor-management interactions? The NLRA provides a detailed list of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights regarding organizing a union, bargaining a contract, and involvement (or lack thereof) in job (concerted) actions. These rights are referred to as Section 7 rights. Section 8 lists unfair labor practices for both employers and unions. Students could present and discuss each of these. The NLRB (the primary enforcement agency) was also mandated by the act. The NLRA encouraged unionization in order to provide employees with a balance of power vis a vis employers. It affects labor relations by providing a structure for negotiations and conflict resolution. Students could be called upon to provide some specific examples. 5. What are the features of traditional and nontraditional labor relations? What are the potential advantages of the Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ nontraditional approaches to labor relations? Traditional labor relations can be characterized as adversarial in nature. Negotiations are generally win-lose, and grievances tend to be settled at the third and fourth levels of the process. Nontraditional labor relations include an emphasis on problem-solving and win-win negotiations. Grievances may be more frequently settled informally at the first step. Additionally, employees may be involved in team efforts and participate in decision making. 6. How does the U.S. industrial and labor relations systems compare with systems in other countries such as those in Western Europe? The U.S. industrial relations system has a very low relative union density rate. The union wage premium is higher in the United States. Western European unions have a much higher level of formal worker participation in decision making. Web Exercise Students are asked to visit UAWÃ¢â¬â¢s web site to read about and answer questions about their recent mergers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ www.uaw.com End-of-Chapter Case A Floor Under Foreign Factories? The global economic crisis is turning up the heat on companies that use cheap overseas labor, and as a result many companies are taking action like Nike, Inc. Nike lifted wages for its entry-level factory workers in Indonesia by 22 percent to offset that countryÃ¢â¬â¢s devalued currency and other companies are finding ways to fix these problems without being undercut by rivals. The American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) introduced a task force to set guidelines for companies to police their factories and suppliers. In addition, the Council on Economic Priorities launched a program toward labor relations by having companies self-regulate even in the face of negative publicity about sweatshops, which could in turn create a floor of basic working conditions evolving around the globe. The plan is to establish the Fair Labor Association (FLA), a private entity to be controlled 50-50 by corporate and human-rights or labor representatives. The FLA would accredit auditors, such as accounting firms, to certify companies as complying with the code of conduct, and inspect about a fifth of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s factories for certification. This plan however needs to address wages and unionization rights in order to be successful. These two efforts can pose a problem for companies who still want to deal with sweatshops because human-rights groups will continue to expose the companies that use this technique. Questions 1. From laborÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, what challenges does the Ã¢â¬Å"mobility of capitalÃ¢â¬ create of protecting workerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights? From laborÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, the challenges are: decent wage levels, appropriate standard of living, and job security. 2. Should companies be obligated to pay a Ã¢â¬Å"living wageÃ¢â¬ to workers? What would the likely consequences be for workers? To avoid exploitation by companies, Ã¢â¬Å"living wagesÃ¢â¬ certainly makes sense. It also treats employees as assets rather than cheap labor. 3. If international labor standards are to be enforced, what is the best means? Should enforcement take the form of self-regulation by industry groups or should national governments cooperate in enforcing such standards? If international standards are to be enforced, they should be consistent and similar for the whole international market. This way it will be easier to monitor and control when there are discrepancies or when there is check-ins in the factories. National governments should take a cooperative approach in this arena to make sure things are going as planned and companies are complying with standards. 4. As a consumer, do the conditions under which people work matter to you in choosing a product to buy? Answers will vary. For the most part, most consumers will not think about where the products came from or where they were made when deciding on whether to purchase a certain product. The people that will take this issue into consideration would probably be the human-rights groups or other informed and concerned consumers; however, many people do not understand or are well informed about such issues. Additional Activities Teaching Suggestions Students are frequently quite interested in how labor relations work. Additionally, they may have fairly strong opinions about unions and their effectiveness. Discussions are therefore quite easy to start and keep going. Below are a number of activities that can be added to the text material. One role play is included that allows students to try out the first step in a grievance procedure. The HBR case on the clerical and technical employees organizing campaigns gives students a good chance to think about how HRM policies and practices truly play a role in employee relations. Two of the Ã¢â¬Å"Competing throughÃ¢â¬ boxes have discussion questions listed. Finally, the Saturn end-of-part case is very useful with this chapter, illustrating the benefits of a constructive joint union-management relationship. 1. Competing through Quality Discussion Questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Certainly strikes bring about hostile attitudes in many cases. What strategies can management use to defuse these feelings once people are back at work? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã · Given the Electromation case, how careful does management need to be in using teams as a quality improvement technique? 2. Competing through Globalization Discussion Questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What types of strategies should U.S. organizations use when dealing with labor relations in other countries? What information do they need and with whom should they staff the labor relations positions? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will unions ever move to have a multinational structure like many organizations do? Why or why not? You may wish to have students do some library or Internet research on this question. 3. An interesting case from the Harvard Business School is listed below with questions for discussion. This may be assigned to groups as a written case analysis or used in class to discuss and illustrate a number of points regarding why employees join unions and what sort of union organizing techniques are used. Case 9-490-027: Clerical and Technical Workers Organizing Campaign at Harvard University (A) Case 9-490-081: Part (B) Teaching Note (5-490-083) Supplement (9-490-081) This case describes a successful organizing drive among clerical and technical workers at Harvard. The union (HUCTW) relied on unusual strategies: espousing cooperation, avoiding specific demands, emphasizing the need for worker voice, and making use of volunteer organizers. Discussion Questions 1. Should Harvard oppose unionization? 2. How would a union affect the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ needs? 3. How effective were HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign tactics? 4. What did you learn about managing human resources from reading and analyzing this case? 5. The Saturn case presents a labor-management relationship (as well as a plant design process) designed from the ground up as a cooperative, joint interaction. After covering this chapter, students should be well prepared to discuss the demands placed upon both the union and management in a situation like SaturnÃ¢â¬â¢s. The case provides some focus on the political riskiness of a cooperative relationship for the union-elected officials. In the Saturn case discussion, it would be useful to note the difference between beginning a new operation in which the union-management relationship is based on Ã¢â¬Å"jointnessÃ¢â¬ and trust and the effort needed to change a relationship in which trust has not existed in the past. 6. Assign the following article from The Wall Street Journal (May 24, 1993): Ã¢â¬Å"Why Ms. Brickman of Sarah Lawrence Now Rallies WorkersÃ¢â¬ by Kevin Salwen. Note also that as part of the AFL-CIOÃ¢â¬â¢s new Ã¢â¬Å"union summer program,Ã¢â¬ more than 1,600 young people, mostly college students, have applied for pro-labor candidates and help organize workers. Ask the students to discuss this quote: Ã¢â¬Å"Every successful social movement in history, including the civil rights movement, was run by young people. If the labor movement is going to succeed and grow again, they need to be a big part of it.Ã¢â¬ 7. A role play is useful in talking about the grievance procedure. Using the following scenario, assign the roles of union steward, supervisor, employee, and observer to students in groups of four. Give them 20 minutes to try to resolve the issue informally, but if they are unable to, have them Ã¢â¬Å"write it upÃ¢â¬ as a grievance. Those groups that do resolve it may hand in their resolution. Observers should provide feedback to the students in the other roles on interpersonal skills, empathy, listening, idea generation to resolve the issue, and so on. It is Friday afternoon in the special-order fabrications section of the Caseville plant. As the supervisor Mary Reed is checking work orders, she notes that there is one order that has not been handled, and delivery is due the next week. Clearly, Mary is going to have to find several people to work a second shift on overtime. Under the Caseville-Local 484 contract, overtime must be distributed by seniority. The supervisor quickly pulls her seniority list from the file and, beginning at the top, walks around her area talking to the employees and asking about their interest in overtime immediately after the current shift ends. After talking with five men, Mary has only one who will work. Quitting time is five minutes away, and the whereabouts of Brooke Youngblood is not known (Brooke is next on the list). In desperation, Stevens asks three employees standing at their benches who are about to leave. Two of these people agree to work (both are junior to Brooke). That afternoon and evenin g the order is completed. Monday morning, upon arrival, Brooke is greeted and asked about his weekend. It turns out that he had taken a trip into the city with his son for a major league baseball game Friday afternoon. The tickets had been purchased a month before, and the special event was a birthday present. In the course of the discussion, Brooke learns about the overtime and realizes he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been asked about it by his supervisor. He immediately calls his union steward, Carry Stevens. A discussion ensues.
Friday, August 30, 2019
How does Stevenson present the conflict between good and evil in Ã¢â¬ËDr Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬â¢? Essay
Ã¢â¬ËDr Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ is a novella by Robert Louis Stevenson set in Victorian London and written in 1886. It can be said that Stevenson took ideas directly from his own experiences when creating the plot, as many aspects of the novella can be compared directly to his life. Stevenson grew up in Edinburgh, which had the same dramatic contrast between the rich and the poor sides as the London in which Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ is set and it is clear that he was influenced by the things he saw when going about his every day life; the divide between wealth and poverty. The idea of the unhappily conflicted personality of Jekyll could easily be based upon himself; the young Stevenson aspired to become a writer but this profession was looked down on by society as writers were seen as leading immoral and hedonistic lifestyles. His parents certainly disapproved of his choice and wanted him to pursue a more respectable career. Stevenson decided to take a law degree, but did not stop writing, thereby creating for himself a double life. The genre of the book is gothic horror and could also be said to have elements of science fiction. One clear influence would be Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢ by Mary Shelley, written in 1818. This, like Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and HydeÃ¢â¬â¢, has themes of the worrying developments in science and compromising morality as well as controversial comments on society. Another source of inspiration is the 1859 book by Charles Darwin: Ã¢â¬ËOrigin of the SpeciesÃ¢â¬â¢ in which Darwin looks in depth at the ideas of evolution. This book was particularly shocking since it suggested that all human beings were once animals, which were believed to not have souls. Such an outrageous statement clearly contradicted the views of the religious majority. The period in which Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ was written is important because of the rigid morals held by most people in Victorian England. There were clear divides between classes, where the rich and the poor were considered as almost complete different races. This meant that there was a great deal of hypocrisy; respected unmarried men were often encouraged to meet with prostitutes but the women themselves were considered as disgustingly immoral. People had prejudices against anybody who looked strange or different, strongly adhering to the idea of physiognomy; that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality could be defined by their appearance. This was also a time where many new breakthroughs were being made in science and people were beginning to worry about the moral side of what was being done, and fearing that scientists were attempting to concern themselves with divine matters. This meant that scientists were often not very well thought of. The main theme in Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ is the divide of good and evil and the duality of mankind. This was particularly relevant in the society of the time as several characters were beginning to emerge that had appeared respectable members of society and turned out to be less than perfect. The most famous example of this is Jack the Ripper, who was believed to be a surgeon or at least have detailed anatomical knowledge. Other examples are Burke and Hare, two infamous men who sold stolen bodies and then victims that they themselves had murdered to be used in medical research. This was highly disturbing, particularly since their main client Dr Knox must have known that the bodies they were receiving did not come from moral sources. Another example in the society of the time was Deacon Brodie, a respected cabinet maker who was also a skilled burglar. Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ tells the story of wealthy doctor Henry Jekyll, whose ideas that a human being had both good and evil inside them led him to attempting to split up a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. His experiment worked, however not entirely as he would have wanted, as he had managed to create and physically transform into a personification of his own malignance who he dubbed Ã¢â¬ËEdward Hyde.Ã¢â¬â¢ He soon discovered that the reckless lack of morals and fury of Hyde were highly addictive and he found himself going about under the guise of his other self and committing atrocities. Eventually he realised that he was being rapidly taken over by Hyde and was unable to give him up. He was also running out of the drug that enabled him to transform back into Jekyll, and he discovered to his horror that he could not recreate the original mixture. He wrote an account of what had happened to his friend, Gabriel Utterson, and then committed suicide to kill both himself and Hyde. The different elements of the plot fit together seamlessly, and at times this appears a little too coincidental such as a letter to Utterson being found upon the murdered Danvers Carew and Utterson so easily being able to find out that Jekyll and Hyde had such similar handwriting through his clerk Guest. Instead of using Jekyll as the storyteller, Stevenson uses an embedded narrative by having Utterson as the main narrator. This means that we see the story from the perspective of somebody who is not directly involved and therefore means that the reader does not see the full truth until the end when everything is explained from the viewpoint of the doctor Lanyon and then Jekyll himself. This adds realism to the story, as each narrator is a completely different character. For example, LanyonÃ¢â¬â¢s description of events is much more factual and JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s uses intelligent metaphors and detailed imagery. The narrative is achronological, meaning that the story is not portrayed in chronological order. Rather, we experience the tale with Utterson first, and then are filled in on events that happened previously by Lanyon, and finally told all that had happened by Jekyll, starting from long before we were first introduced into the plot. This means that we are almost plunged into the n arrative Ã¢â¬Ëin media resÃ¢â¬â¢ as we start off from the middle of the story. While Lanyon and Jekyll give us clear first person accounts, Utterson is described in the third person, and this helps us to understand the flaws of his personality and therefore understand him more. It gives us a less biased perspective as we are enabled to make up our own opinions as well as learning UttersonÃ¢â¬â¢s views on what is happening. Stevenson wants us to trust Utterson as a person so that we will trust his judgment, giving him a dull and controlled personality so that his perceptions will appear more likely and lead us to making false conclusions so that the actual outcome of the tale is a complete shock to us as well as to Utterson. His narrative makes the story more believable than if we had been told everything directly by Jekyll and also builds up tension and mystery as the lawyer goes out of his way to piece together the trouble his friend is in as well as the profile of the elusive Mr. Hyde. The character that the whole novella is circled around is Dr Henry Jekyll, who is first presented to us as a wealthy man of good taste. A small doubt to his character is put forward as he is described as Ã¢â¬Å"something of a slyish cast perhapsÃ¢â¬ but then insisting that he was Ã¢â¬Å"every mark of capacity and kindness.Ã¢â¬ Since Utterson had already suggested to us that Jekyll is in some kind of trouble, we are more likely to feel sorry for him. This is further increased by JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent terror when Utterson mentions Hyde. He therefore appears as a fairly weak person who is being manipulated by Hyde. We learn a lot more about him when we read his first person account. JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s flaws become more obvious and we realise that he is not as he originally appeared. His language shows us that he is extremely intelligent and insightful, and idealistic enough to believe that his reckless experiments could change mankind for the better. He does appear fairly weak in character, as he clearly enjoyed the new feelings that being Hyde allowed him. He says that he Ã¢â¬Å"felt younger, lighter, happier in body; within I was conscious of a heady recklessness, a current disordered sensual images running like a mill race in my fancy, a solution out of the bonds of obligation, and unknown but not an innocent freedom of the soul.Ã¢â¬ Clearly, he found it refreshing to be able to take the body of a younger and fitter man, particularly one who was not governed by moral boundaries. He continued to take the potion even though he knew that his new self was purely evil until he could not stop, which shows that he was acting for himself now instead of continuing his research. He keeps himself free from guilt by not accepting any responsibility for HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s crimes, insisting Ã¢â¬Å"it was Hyde, after all, and Hyde alone, that was guilty.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, he completely disassociates his other half from himself. He appeared to feel remorse for the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, but then decided that it was wholly HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s fault and all that he had to do was use this as an excuse for no longer becoming Hyde, which shows him to be a hypocrite. But he also becomes distanced from his original self, referring to Jekyll in the first person and seeing the visage of the doctor as just as much of a mask as becoming Hyde, talking about the two halves of himself as equals despite Hyde being completely malignant while Jekyll was a Ã¢â¬Å"composite.Ã¢â¬ This would mean that evil was the greatest force and he had inadvertently moved Ã¢â¬Å"toward the worseÃ¢â¬ as he feared after the first transformation. He actually considers staying as Hyde for the rest of his life when forced to make a choice, but decides that he prefers to be Jekyll, well-liked and a man of reputation. Despite being taken over almost entirely by Hyde, Jekyll still has the strength to end his own life and thereby killing Hyde. Jekyll speaks in a respectful manner when addressing others, but we do not really learn much about him before the first person account. Here, it is clear that he is a man of excellent schooling and with a wide imagination. His language is flowing and descriptive, using metaphors such as Ã¢â¬Å"the Babylonian finger on the wallÃ¢â¬ and analysing ideas in psychology that were beyond his time, in fact also beyond StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s. To the reader, Jekyll represents the average man. He is curious and ambitious, and often feels conflicted from the strains of his life. He is tempted by pleasure, and makes the wrong decisions due to this. Also, he appears as quite proud and egotistical, thinking that his clever tricks can keep him out of trouble and that he is completely safe. This leads him to his own downfall. Hyde is the physical embodiment of the evil element of mankind. He is utterly immoral and feels absolutely no regret for any of the dissolute crimes he commits, in fact he is delighted by them. For example when he kills Danvers Carew, he Ã¢â¬Å"mauled the unresisting body, tasting delight from every blow.Ã¢â¬ His appearance is very important as everybody who meets him instantly dislikes him although they do not quite know how. He is described as Ã¢â¬Å"pale and dwarfish; he gave an impression of deformity without any nameable malformation.Ã¢â¬ Jekyll supposes that HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s small stature is due to him only being a part of a whole; the personification of one aspect of JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s character. The immediate hatred he provokes when he comes into contacts with others shows how he has an aura of profligacy that can be sensed even when there is no reason to dislike him. For example, when Lanyon met him for the first time knowing nothing about him, he says that he too was filled with the same irrational hatred, telling Utterson that he was surprised by Ã¢â¬Å"the odd, subjective disturbance caused by his neighbourhood.Ã¢â¬ In fact, the only person not repulsed by Hyde is Jekyll himself, whose first response to his other half was Ã¢â¬Å"a leap of welcome,Ã¢â¬ although in time he grows to truly hate him. Hyde does not care about anybody, but he clearly cares about his own welfare as he takes measures to protect himself from capture after committing crimes, and is afraid of death. This is clear when Jekyll says that Hyde commits Ã¢â¬Å"temporary suicideÃ¢â¬ by returning to JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s body and safety. Hyde does not hate Jekyll in himself, but hates being imprisoned inside him and that Jekyll has the strength to cage him and destroy him. He cannot hurt Jekyll without hurting himself, so resorts to showing his loathing of Jekyll by playing childish spiteful tricks on him. Jekyll describes Hyde as Ã¢â¬Å"ape-likeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"troglodytic,Ã¢â¬ suggesting that he is not only inhuman but pre-human. This takes ideas from the theory of evolution by Darwin, and could mean that Hyde is a step back in evolution and therefore fuelled by natural instincts rather than carefully considered thought. His emotions are very extreme; he is filled with a mixture of rage, joy and fear. He tends to act on impulse by striking out when he is enraged without any thought of the consequences. This idea of Hyde being more of a beast than a human being also plays with the ideas of religious Victorians that animals did not have souls and would not go to heaven. Hyde converses with others with a cold sarcastic politeness, speaking courteously enough unless angered. He is not initially rude when forced into a conversation with Utterson, but may have recognised him as a friend of Jekyll who it would not be wise to draw attention from. His temper flares very easily, and he can do anything when this happens. He is in a furious mood when Jekyll lets him takes control again, and this leads to his attack on Danvers Carew. When he is caught in public without his potion, he strikes a woman in the face for attempting to talk with him, and is close to assaulting the driver of a cab taking him to safety. He uses sharp plosives such as Ã¢â¬Å"blasted by a prodigyÃ¢â¬ and using short sentences which gives the impression of faster and more violent speech. Gabriel Utterson is the first character introduced to the reader. He is described as being Ã¢â¬Å"slow in sentiment, lean, long, dusty, dreary, and yet somehow lovable,Ã¢â¬ which makes him sound to be a very uninteresting person but adds a positive adjective so that he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t perceived as having a bad personality. Stevenson introduces him first to add realism to the impossible plot and to get the reader to place their trust in him as a person, not just as a narrator. He is reserved and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to get involved, proven when he said Ã¢â¬Å"I let my brother go to the devil his own way.Ã¢â¬ However, this original philosophy is reverted when he is told about Hyde and realises that his close friend Jekyll must be in trouble. Utterson ends up being the one most involved in JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, actively seeking out Hyde and looking for answers. He does not like to gossip, and agrees with Enfield that speaking less about things is a good idea. Utterson appears to think that reputation is of great importance and he barely changes his stiff routine even during emergencies such as CarewÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Utterson appears to be well-liked and trustable in general, as both Jekyll and Lanyon regard him as a good friend and it is said that Ã¢â¬Å"hosts loved to detain the dry lawyer.Ã¢â¬ Utterson does not make friends easily, but Ã¢â¬Å"his affections, like ivy, were the growth of time;Ã¢â¬ he makes friends for life. This shows with how he worries about Jekyll. The effect Hyde has on such a boring man is remarkable, as Utterson is filled with fear and curiosity despite not having even met the man yet. He begins to suffer from lack of sleep as he ponders his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s predicament, picturing Hyde as some kind of demon with a terrible power over Jekyll. This shows that even though Utterson is not a very imaginative man, he is conjuring up images of this unknown monster which frighten him. He seems to be a brave man when searching for and then facing Hyde, especially as he begins to learn what the man is capable of, which proves him to be quite a selfless person when it comes to helping his friends despite what he had originally said about keeping out of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Dr Hastie Lanyon is a mutual friend of Jekyll and Utterson, and his help is required by Hyde in order to transform back into Jekyll when he transforms in RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s Park without his potion. The shock of seeing the depraved Hyde physically becoming his friend Jekyll causes Lanyon to become very ill and he dies soon after. Lanyon is described as a Ã¢â¬Å"hearty, healthy, dapper, red-faced gentle-manÃ¢â¬ the first time he is shown to the reader, but by the time of his death he had become Ã¢â¬Å"pale; his flesh had fallen away; he was visibly balder and olderÃ¢â¬ which shows the effects of discovering JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s secret. Lanyon is a doctor of empirical science and clearly disapproves of JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s wild ideas. He claims that Jekyll Ã¢â¬Å"began to go wrong, wrong in mindÃ¢â¬ and calls his work Ã¢â¬Å"unscientific balderdash.Ã¢â¬ This implies that Jekyll had told Lanyon some of his ideas, and the disagreement over this had separated the two friends. Hyde taunts Lanyon about this when about to take the potion to turn back into Jekyll, saying Ã¢â¬Å"you have denied the virtue of transcendental medicine, you who have derided your superiors.Ã¢â¬ Despite Hyde playing on the rift between them, Jekyll still greatly respects Lanyon and apparently the reaction of his friend affected him a lot more than CarewÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. Just as Hyde represents evil in the story, Lanyon represents good. He is jovial, kind, and although he had a grudge against Jekyll due to the unusual experiments he is carrying out, it seems likely that he would in due course forgive him. He does still consider Jekyll his friend, despite often referring to him as insane and apparently not trusting him. The knowledge of exactly what his friend had become destroyed him completely, and he became too afraid to speak of it or even to sleep. He tells Utterson that he knows that he is dying and seems to have resigned himself to the fact, but says that he will Ã¢â¬Å"die incredulousÃ¢â¬ as the horrific scene he had witnessed defied all scientific logic that the sensible man could ever consider. He cannot cope with the impossible reality of what he has seen. JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s butler Poole is of a lower class than the other characters and consequently uses non-standard English. However, Stevenson contradicts the common assumption that common servants were ignorant and foolish by making Poole, although uneducated, a fairly clever character. Poole has picked up on the problems his master is having, and has begun to try and work out what is going on. He has realised that Hyde is in the house in JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s place, and attempts to argue his intuition against UttersonÃ¢â¬â¢s wistful logic, with Poole turning out to be right. Poole turns out to be a useful character, helping bring Utterson to discover the truth. Another critique of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s views is the character Enfield, described as a Ã¢â¬Å"well-known man about town,Ã¢â¬ who is of upper class and yet appears to be not exactly perfect. Enfield tells Utterson that he was Ã¢â¬Å"coming home from some place at the end of the world, about three oÃ¢â¬â¢clock [in the morning],Ã¢â¬ casually implying that he was visiting somewhere unsuitable; a popular pastime that the wealthy glossed over. Stevenson uses a great deal of language techniques to put across the sinister tale of Ã¢â¬ËJekyll and Hyde.Ã¢â¬â¢ He starts the novel with a description of the narrator Utterson and his friend Enfield, using humour when he tells the reader about the apparent incompatibility between the men and how they insisted on going on walks that neither of them appeared to enjoy. This is effective because EnfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s story is a good way to lead into the main tale, and we are thereby introduced to a few crucial elements of the story. For example, the back door which leads to JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s laboratory, although this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t revealed until later on. It appears to ruin the appearance of the street, a blemish on an aesthetically pleasing area, drawing in unsavoury characters such as the homeless and rowdy children. The whole idea of the two doors is a clever metaphor for the theme of good against evil, as Hyde could enter through the decrepit back of the house and emerge from the front as Jekyll. Stevenson employs many similar metaphors, such as the use of physiognomy to suggest HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s malevolence and by describing Lanyon, making him sound a kind and cheerful man. Lanyon also has Ã¢â¬Å"a shock of hair prematurely whiteÃ¢â¬ , the colour white carrying with it connotations of purity and strengthening his character. HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s visage is hidden by a mask when moving around JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s house, symbolising JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s longing to keep his devil hidden away. Another technique used is the image of angry citizens crowding around the cold, sneering Hyde, each one filled with Ã¢â¬Å"the desire to kill him;Ã¢â¬ HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s unnatural air of evil turning the normally docile women into Ã¢â¬Å"harpiesÃ¢â¬ that had to be held back lest they attack him. This works well as it opposes th e gender roles in society. One of the most effective tools Stevenson uses is the weather. The first instance of this is during HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s first appearance; it takes place in early morning where everywhere is eerily quiet and dark. It is also night-time when Danvers Carew is killed, this time a full moon which often symbolises unearthly happenings, although the maid who had witnessed the murder contradicts this idea by saying that she had never felt more at peace with the world. When Utterson takes the policeman to HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s house in Soho, it is Ã¢â¬Å"the first fog of the season,Ã¢â¬ relevant to the previous events since this was HydeÃ¢â¬â¢s first murder and his character was becoming worse and worse in the eye of the reader. The idea of fog creates very vivid imagery, and could be taken as a metaphor for the shrouded truth about Hyde. The mist is broken in some places by sunlight, which could symbolise the hope still left that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t yet been swallowed by darkness. This whole scene has been personified; the fog almost appearing like a creature battling with the wind that was aggressively attempting to drive it away. This scene is suitably supernatural; Utterson describes it as Ã¢â¬Å"a district of some city in a nightmare.Ã¢â¬ This pathetic fallacy is subverted when Jekyll is in RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s Park and transforms into Hyde; it was a blissful, sunny day with all the frost having melted away and Ã¢â¬Å"sweet with Spring odours.Ã¢â¬ This does not seem like a setting for any villainy, but this is where Hyde appears again, which shows that evil can now happen in beautiful places. The pace of the story depends upon who is telling it, but it is generally slow paced. However, this changes during scenes of action, which builds up tension. The sentences are complex during descriptions, often in a few parts with colons or semi-colons to break them up, but during faster scenes this changes into short sentences with alliteration and plosives and usually more dialogue. This builds the pace of the text and engages the reader. Ã¢â¬ËDr Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬â¢ has very universal themes of the good and evil elements of every human being, which means that it just as relevant today as it was when it was written, even if the points put across are less controversial. Stevenson deals with theories of subconscious thought, seen when Jekyll becomes Hyde in his sleep which would suggest that humans are more mentally conscious when asleep, an idea which still hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been completely worked out today. This was very advanced as nobody had yet begun to develop these ideas, until 1901 when Freud published a thesis on the unconscious mind. It is clear in the story that Jekyll quickly grows to hate his creation, but is unable to give it up. This can easily be seen as analogous to modern addictions such as drugs and alcohol, which can seem wonderful in the beginning and then quickly take over your life as Hyde did until it seems impossible to stop. The same patterns can be traced between the feelings from substance abuse and JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s addiction to the feelings and emotions he felt being Hyde, which shows that this is still very relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Like Jekyll, modern scientists are being criticized for their research, such as cloning and work into genetics. Some people argue that they are meddling with GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work, and even those who are not religious may say that this kind of research is immoral and wrong, or that it could lead to problems like diseases if our whole natural system is changed artificially. Even if this does not happen, sometimes human beings can go too far with what they think is right. The thirst for success can often blind people to what they actually want to achieve, for example a scientist working on perfecting human cloning may be purely working for the glory of the discovery rather than improving the world by his findings. This is human arrogance, which was JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness. I think that the message in Jekyll and Hyde is that although evil dwells naturally within everybody, it can be overcome and that we all have the strength to overcome it. JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s pride caused his inner demons to take on a life of their own in Hyde, and although it cost him his own life, JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s morals and conscience were the victor in the end. Stevenson was trying to put forward the idea that humans are not either good or evil, nor are we sane or insane, but we are all the same to being with, built up of different emotions, thoughts and feeling which can lead us one way or another depending on our upbringing, choices, experiences and actions. So although everybody has a potential for evil, they also have a potential for good, and power to overcome evil.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The poem presents the reader with a power shift from male to female but could also highlight that the story is not simply restricted too male perspective. In this light, Duffy is, like in Ã¢â¬ËMrs. Midas', highlighting how certain members of society are exploited and how, despite popular belief, women often have control over men. This is reinforced when Queen Kong states how he is Ã¢â¬Å"my (her) little manÃ¢â¬ . This reveals her affection towards the man but also significantly displays his physical inferiority.The use of the possessive pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"my' again possibly reveals her care for the man but also possibly signifies her ownership of the man and thus shows how she is control. Duffy use of humor is also apparent throughout this poem. This is evident when the people in the village do not hear because they are Ã¢â¬Å"used to strangersÃ¢â¬ -The image of a gorilla walking the streets and no one noticing is completely absurd. There is a further element of humor when Queen Ko ng states how she is Ã¢â¬Å"especially fond of pastrami on ryeÃ¢â¬ .Here, Duffy is straining the Bohemian lifestyle. This comic effect is also conveyed in stanza 7 when Queen Kong states Ã¢â¬Å"l was discreet, prowled those trees in darknessÃ¢â¬ . Additionally the notion of her going shopping without anyone noticing adds to the absurdity of the idea and the image of a huge gorilla walking through a shop adds to comical effect Duffy is trying to create. The annalistic instincts and desires of Queen Kong are notable on several occasions In the poem. The long nights In the heatÃ¢â¬ reveal her physical reaction and emphasizes her annalistic behavior in that It Is her natural Instinct to mate. The way Queen Kong explicitly reveals how she Ã¢â¬Å"put the tip of (her) tongue to the grape of his fleshÃ¢â¬ again emphasizes her annalistic behavior with the alliteration stressing how they went straight to having sex. This accentuates the Idea that It was lust and not romance that bro ught them to have sex. Queen Kong Just using the man to satisfy her own desires -control that she has over concept reinforced by the Idea that she was Ã¢â¬Å"lonely'- Italicized stressing her desperation? The control and superiority of queen Kong Is again apparent In stanza 9 Ã¢â¬Å"l picked him up Like a chocolate from the top layerÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â whilst the simile portrays the man as desirable and metaphorically tasty, ultimately he has no control. This concept Is developed when queen Kong refers to the helicopters as Ã¢â¬Å"dragonfliesÃ¢â¬ .This metaphor reveals the extent of her power and physicality. Moreover, It can be connected to the threat made earlier on In the poem that she Ã¢â¬Å"could swat his plane from the sky Like a gnatÃ¢â¬ - effective In disclosing her control and how he Is physically Inferior. -shift of power from male to female- male's often use their physical strength as a threat and In that way are normally superior to women. Power Shifts in Queen Kong By nekton highlight that the story is not simply restricted to a male perspective.In this light, instincts and desires of Queen Kong are notable on several occasions in the poem. Ã¢â¬Å"The long nights in the heatÃ¢â¬ reveal her physical reaction and emphasizes her annalistic behavior in that it is her natural instinct to mate. The way Queen Kong straight to having sex. This accentuates the idea that it was lust and not romance desires -control that she has over concept reinforced by the idea that she was Ã¢â¬Å"lonely'- italicized stressing her desperation?The control and superiority of queen Kong is again apparent in stanza 9 Ã¢â¬Å"l picked him up like a chocolate from the top ultimately he has no control. This concept is developed when queen Kong refers to physicality. Moreover, it can be connected to the threat made earlier on in the poem that she Ã¢â¬Å"could swat his plane from the sky like a gnatÃ¢â¬ - effective in disclosing her control and how he is physically inferior. -shift of power from male to female- male's often use their physical strength as a threat and in that way are normally superior to
Free topic - Research Paper Example The key focus of this paper is to determine the significance of the religious myth in the Indian culture, as well as the ability of mythology in Indian culture to reflect the values, beliefs and philosophies, which guide the daily lives of people, in India. Religious mythology is an essential component of Indian culture, and Indians hold it dear to their lives. Meaning and purpose of myths Myths are tales and stories, which are used to enlighten people and guide them by sharing collective knowledge and encounters. The facts of myths are obtained from reality and handle real world problems affecting the lives of individuals by the use of imaginary characters and events. Myths tend to explain survival of natural phenomena or beliefs, tribal customs, describe the establishment and origin of rituals, proper behavior instruction and entertainment (Joseph Campbell Foundation par. 13-16). Primarily, myths serve the purpose of giving vivid explanations of cultural and natural phenomena. The evolution of mythology owes its credit to the quest and desire of people to develop a deep understanding about the world. Secondly, myths serve the purpose of justifying, validating, and explanation of the continuation of social systems and traditional customs and rites. It is imperative to note that myths have secondary purpose, which includes instruction vehicles and tools and source of healing among others (Joseph Campbell Foundation par. 13-16). Indian Religious Myth and Diversity There are diverse religious activities and beliefs in India, and the socio-cultural habits in that region of the planet tend to be equally rich and diverse, as they incorporate many nations with religious backgrounds that tend to be extremely vivid. Indian mythology analyzes the entire myths associated with Buddhist, Jain and Hindu among other scriptures (Lauhitya Kingdom par. 1-15). Evidently, the richest element of the Indian culture is the Indian mythology; the mythology can be termed as essential i n modeling the Indian culture, as well as the beliefs. The stories and encounters of the Indian mythology have been passed from one generation to the next, either through keen story telling or systematically written books and articles. It is vital to note that Indian mythology cannot be separated from the religion of India; the myths describe the religious goddessesÃ¢â¬â¢ and godsÃ¢â¬â¢ accounts for the vast Indian population (Lauhitya Kingdom par. 1-15). It is imperative to note that oral transmission of Indian mythology has become the most effective because people believe in the religious teachings given orally. Further, Buddha mythology and Hindu mythology form part of Indian mythology, and they will be discussed deeply in the course of the paper. Jatakas include tales that contain the legends and myths, related to Buddha, as well stories of the birth of Buddha, his life and his Nirvana attainment (Lauhitya Kingdom par. 1-15). Indian Epic Poetry The mythology of India and Ind ian epic poetry also relate to one another and married to each other. The two interrelate on various grounds, which show the significance of the rich reserve of poems written in India. Epic poetry describes a long poem, which narrates the daring exploit of a person in ways, which tend to be basic to the culture and beliefs of Indian people. Epic poems are laden with
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Breton Woods Monetary System, Oil Embargo and International Political Economy - Essay Example Furthermore, scholars utilize a mixture of empirical data and theories to arrive at an understanding of IPE at different points in time. This essay looks into the major events that had an impact on the International Political Economy or simply International Relations, namely, the Breton Woods Monetary System and the Oil Embargo of 1973. Discussion What was the Bretton Wood Monetary System (BWMS)? The process of monitoring the exchange rates between the dollar and other foreign currencies by World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and lending reserve money supply for developing nations, wherein the US dollars were linked to gold with $ 1 equals 35 oz. of gold, was well known as the BWMS. In nearly 150 pages the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) publicized the history of Bretton Woods, from its origin to its demise, and concluded by saying (1992, p. 61) Ã¢â¬Å"The defects and dramatic collapse of Bretton Woods have discouraged nations from seeking to restore a system like it.Ã¢â¬ The system collapsed as soon as the dollar link to gold was severed and instead, the value of foreign currencies was made to float against the US dollar. It derived its name from the American resort where a conference of national economic leaders agreed on a plan to reconstruct out of the war damages, by following the international monetary rules. 730 delegates from 44 nations then allied with the USA and UK had agreed to link the foreign exchange (FX) rates to the dollar which corresponded to a gold standard value. The international transactions were then aimed to reconstruct countries damaged by World Wars. They decided to fix the FX rates against the dollar. The currency of each country was given a par value against the dollar. They agreed on not allowing the foreign currencies to float and to maintain adequate supply of monetary reserves and to avoid any economic warfare. FX currency should not be controlled to regulate purchases or sales of currencies intended for trade of goods and services. As for the purpose of having a forum wherein members can vote on certain decisions pertaining to the monetary rules, the USA maintained a veto power. By August 15, 1971, seeing that dollars were headed towards a proportion which could not be backed by gold, the standard of convertibility of the dollar to gold was suspended. Both the par value and gold standard ended. That was the end of the Breton Woods Monetary System. Currencies of industrial countries were made to float for consideration during FX transactions. In place of gold standard value of the dollar, the basis became whatever promises were made by the government. The events after Britton Woods saw USA and UK suffering in terms of deficits in its Balance of Payments and high unemployment rates. This has made economists suggest that the economic system should once again be created or modified similar to the way it was done when the Bretton Woods Monetary System began. But there have been major changes in the world market, particularly the rising prices of oil which caused great damages
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Analysis - Dissertation Example As of January 31, 2012, the 10-K report of the company states that the revenue of the company was calculated in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"282,180,170 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value outstanding.Ã¢â¬ Clearly, this is a representation of stiff market performance that is accounts for reasons why the company continues to have a very wide market position. Presently, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy for growth is focused on merger with emerging competitors in developing economies. Pepco Holdings Inc. (POM) Reviewers have for long judged Pepco Holdings Inc (POM) as a major competitor for Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company (OGE) mainly because of the closeness in market strategy held by the two companies. It would for instance be seen that both companies focus on have a business strategy that Ã¢â¬Å"remains focused on being a top-performing, regulated transmission and distribution companyÃ¢â¬ (10-K of POM, 2011). In terms of market size and capacity, the company controls a total of 4.60 billio n dollars (Yahoo Finance, 2012). Fortunately for the company, it continues to experience an upload rise in its market stock value. This is represented on almost all major stock markets in the world including the New York Stock Exchange. Such a performance has contributed to the increase in total operating revenue of the company from $ 5,920M in 2010 to $ 7,039M in 2011 (10-K of POM, 2011). Wisconsin Energy Corp. ... With an impressive market capacity of 9.4 billion dollars as of 2012, the company has positioned itself in the market at such a strategic standing that its main focus has been to deal with corporate groups and entities instead of individual customers. With this group related strategy, the company keeps recording a rising trend in its annual revenue with a revenue rise from $ 7,420M in 2010 to $ 9,139M in 2011. South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCG) The major area of business dealing where South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCG) poses as the strongly competitor of Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company (OGE) is in the area of market margin. This is so said because the two companies have an unusual competition for the same customers in a manner that is not very common with other major competitors. More to this, the company can boost of a very formidable market performance on different stock exchange markets. NASDAQ (2012) for instance quotes the market value of South Carolina Ele ctric and Gas Company (SCG) as $ 6,493,822,800 with a current market yield of 4%. This is clearly a huge market struggle for Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company (OGE) that keeps its market strength along similar margin. According to the 10-K Report of the company for 2011, much of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is attributed to its current strategy, which focuses on employees as the major pillar for organizational transformation. Value Chain Analysis NI is one of the main comparative firms of OGE in the U.S. Diversified Electricity Generator Industry. The significant parts in the value chain that add value for OGE are marketing and sales, services, firm infrastructure, human resource
Monday, August 26, 2019
Customer Service Representative Policy - Assignment Example Customer care representatives should ensure they offer clients beyond their anticipations if they intend to retain them in the business and continue to enjoy greater returns in the business. Therefore, customer care representatives should establish close ties with clients in order to promote customer loyalty to the company. Managers should establish a policy of providing training to the customer care representatives in order to ensure excellent services and products to their clients. The customer service representatives in the hospitality industry should promote unity at work in order to ensure excellent delivery of services to their clients (Kahle & Riley 2004). This is because when employees work together as a team, they will be able to solve any issue that may be affecting their clients, and also instil confidence in the visitors hence promoting customer loyalty. The business policy should ensure that all needs of the clients are giving priority to anything else. The management should train their customer care staff to take into consideration all the issues raised by the clients no matter how petty they seem to be. This will not only make clients feel appreciated but will also make them get more than what they anticipated. Failure to provide clients with products and services that suit their specifications will cause them to seek the same elsewhere (Kitchen & Pelsmacker 2004). In addition, customer care representatives should ensure that clients perceive the o rganization to be what it claims to be. They should inquire from the clients about the nature of services and products they expect to get from the company and also ask them to suggest what they would like to be included in the products and services in order to satisfy their needs. The customer service policy should state the objectives of the customer service. The customer care should offer excellent services to their clients and respond to their requests promptly (Barry 2007). The policy should offer an opportunity for training the customer care representatives and define the approach for rewarding them based on the effort they put to serve the clients.Ã
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Public Procurement Law - Essay Example Under this option, there are several procurement methods that the procuring entity can utilize to source for goods and service, but this essay will focus on open tendering and restricted tendering. The open tendering method is of key importance because of its high value in the process of procurement and because it exerts a significant amount of cost from public resources. This method sets transparency principle to a very high standard. It requires tenders for proposals on how projects will be approached and quality will be met1. Article 28(1) stipulates that unless article 29 to 31, the entities shall use open tendering. Article 10 of the Module law deals with the specification of the tendering process. Article 43(2)(c) establishes that the tender is considered responsive if all requirements conform to the tender documents for solicitation. Article 43 (1)(b) states that minor deviations are possible while not material changes are allowed in terms, conditions, characteristics and any set of requirements in the documents2. When specifications are considered as unlawful, then the procuring entity is required to use the European Union law, to re-issue under lawful forms the specifications are carried out lawfully. For the open tendering method, the Specifications and conditions should be finalized in a clear and concise way, and notices must used to advertise the projects publically. The advertisement should be adequately made to all including international suppliers. This will promote wider competition and place better value for money. The procuring entity will have an understanding of the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s needs by establishing a short-term strategy, followed by a definition of the technical direction and requirements of the process.Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
FAMILY HISTORY - Essay Example Lucky enough nobody from my past contracted Spanish flu as my relatives who were in the Arm were given vaccine to prevent them as their families from the illness. My grandparents were still farmers who mainly planted corn and kept domestic animals such as horses. The roaring of the 20Ã¢â¬â¢s, however, made them migrate to Texas were my father was born but in a later time. The prohibition did not affect anybody in my family line as nobody was concerned with alcohol. The years before World War II significantly affected my family as my relatives, who took part in World War I, were called up again for World War II. Two of my relatives lost their lives during the war, which seriously affected the family. According to my father, my grandparents got an indoor toilet precisely in 1938. Some of my relatives started working particularly in the white collar sector. My grandparents, however, kept up with their farming. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, a relative of mine who passed on, in 1970, was there and gave my relatives stories of how the soldiers were lucky to survive the unexpected attack. However, they had a hard time recovering from the effects of World War II as it took the lives of two of my relatives away. During the cold war era, people living in the U.S. had a capitalist culture, and this is how my family mainly lived (Forbes 14). During the McCarthy era, a lot of families were accused of being communists, but my family showed loyalty to the American government and these accusations did not reach them. The animated film, The Wolf Man, was much appreciated by my family members. They already had a TV set before this time, and some of the favorite shows the Lets Rhumba show. My parents were born during this time. My relatives were concerned in keeping the family business of selling corn going. During the assassination of President Kennedy, my father remembers how the country mourned for losing
Friday, August 23, 2019
Research - Essay Example This data is utilized to explore the existing correlation between variables of interests and diseases. In other words, cross-sectional methodology presents an image of the occurrence of a disease in a population in any time interval. This research technique is preferable in the assessment of diseases that pose as a burden to the population. The information gathered by this technique will assist in the allocation of resources related to health and planning. It entails the study of purely descriptive information. It is utilized in the assessment of occurrence and distribution of a given disease in a specified population. For example, schools randomly sampled across New York can be utilized to assess the prevalence or the burden of Yellow Fever among 12-17 years old. Analytically, the study data may also be utilized to investigate the relations between an alleged risk factor and an outcome of health. Nevertheless, this type is limited in the drawing of valid conclusion regarding possible casualty or association since the presence of outcomes and risk factor are determined simultaneously (Blade, 2001). This makes it hard to evaluate which of the exposure or disease came first. Therefore, it requires a combination of more than one methodology for the technique to be rigorous. Information collection regarding the risk factor is retrospective, hence likelihood of biasness. Information collected regarding outcomes; exposure and disease is not reliable in drawing conclusion in reference to the health status of the sample population. Simultaneous evaluation outcomes and risk factor pose the risk of biasness of the results obtained in the analysis (Pine, 1997). Therefore, it will be difficult to trust that the data obtained is of desired accuracy and precision. Another hindrance of the technique lies in the fact that, the mystifying factors in most cases will not be similarly distributed amongst the various sets of interest in the research. The inequality causes
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Timeline Essay October 7,1763 The Proclamation of 1763, signed by King George III of England, prohibits any English settlement west of the Appalachian mountains and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans. April 5,1764 The Sugar Act is passed by the English Parliament to offset the war debt brought on by the French and Indian War and to help pay for the expenses of running the colonies and newly acquired territories. This act doubles the duties to imported sugar, textiles, coffee, and other items. This is more work for the colonies, for a war that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to happen. 1764 The English Parliament passes a measure to reorganize the American customs system to better enforce British trade laws, which have often been ignored in the past. In the past, the English Parliament has ignored to pass a measure to reorganize the American customs system to better enforce British trade laws. But now, after the Proclamation of 1763 and the Sugar Act, the colonies are seeing a pattern now. 1764 The Currency Act prohibits the colonists from issuing any legal tender paper money. This act threatens to destabilize the entire colonial economy of both the industrial North and agricultural South, thus uniting the colonists against it. March of 1765, the Stamp Act is passed by the English Parliament imposing the first direct tax on the American colonies, to offset the high costs of the British military organization in America. In the first time, Americans will not pay taxes to their own local legislatures, but directly to England. Also happening; The Quartering Act requires colonists to house British troops and supply them with food. 765 In July, the Sons of Liberty, an underground organization opposed to the Stamp Act. They used violence and intimidation to eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign, as well to stop many American merchants from ordering British trade goods. 1765 In October, the Stamp Act Congress convenes in New York City, with representatives from nine of the colonies. The Congress prepares a resolution to be sent to King Georg e III and the English Parliament. The petition requests the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Acts of 1764. The petition asserts that only colonial legislatures can tax colonial residents and that taxation without representation violates the colonists basic civil rights. 1765 In December, British General Thomas Gage, commander of all English military forces in America, asks the New York assembly to make colonists comply with the Quartering Act and house and supply his troops. Also in December, the American boycott of English imports spreads, as over 200 Boston merchants join the movement. 1766 In January, the New York assembly refuses to completely comply with Gen. Gages request to enforce the Quartering Act. March of 1766 King George III repealed the Stamp Act; the English Parliament passes the Declaratory Act stating that the British government has total power to legislate any laws governing the American colonies in all cases whatsoever. 1766 In August, violence breaks out in New York between British soldiers and armed colonists, including Sons of Liberty members. The violence erupts as a result of the continuing refusal of New York colonists to comply with the Quartering Act. In December, the New York legislature is suspended by the English Crown after once again voting to refuse to comply with the Act. 1767 In June, The English Parliament passes the Townshend Revenue Acts, imposing a new series of taxes on the colonists to offset the costs of administering and protecting the American colonies. Items taxed include imports such as paper, tea, glass, lead and paints. 1768 In February, Samuel Adams of Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing taxation without representation and calling for the colonists to unite in their actions against the British government. The letter is sent to assemblies throughout the colonies and also instructs them on the methods the Massachusetts general court is using to oppose the Townshend Acts. May of 1768, a British warship armed with 50 cannons sails into Boston harbor after a call for help from custom commissioners who are constantly being harassed by Boston agitators. In June, a customs official is locked up in the cabin of the Liberty, a sloop owned by John Hancock. Imported wine is then unloaded illegally into Boston without payment of duties. Following this incident, customs officials seize Hancocks sloop. After threats of violence from Bostonians, the customs officials escape to an island off Boston, and then request the intervention of British troops. 1768 In July, the governor of Massachusetts dissolves the general court after the legislature defies his order to revoke Adams circular letter. In August, in Boston and New York, merchants agree to boycott most British goods until the Townshend Acts are repealed. In September, at a town meeting in Boston, residents are urged to arm themselves. Later in September, English warships sail into Boston Harbor, then two regiments of English infantry land in Boston and set up permanent residence to keep order. 1769 In March, merchants in Philadelphia join the boycott of British trade goods. In May, a set of resolutions written by George Mason is presented by George Washington to the Virginia House of Burgesses. The Virginia Resolves oppose taxation without representation, the British opposition to the circular letters, and British plans to possibly send American agitators to England for trial. Ten days later, the Royal governor of Virginia dissolves the House of Burgesses. However, its members meet the next day in a Williamsburg tavern and agree to a boycott of British trade goods, luxury items and slaves. 1770 Violence erupts in January between members of the Sons of Liberty in New York and 40 British soldiers over the posting of broadsheets by the British. Several men are seriously wounded. March 5, 1770 The Boston Massacre occurs as a mob harasses British soldiers who then fire their muskets pointblank into the crowd, killing three instantly, mortally wounding two others and injuring six. After the incident, the new Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, at the insistence of Sam Adams, withdraws British troops out of Boston to nearby harbor islands. The captain of the British soldiers, Thomas Preston, is then arrested along with eight of his men and charged with murder. 1770 In April, the Townshend Acts are repealed by the British. All duties on imports into the colonies are eliminated except for tea. Also, the Quartering Act is not renewed. 1770 In October, trial begins for the British soldiers arrested after the Boston Massacre. Colonial lawyers John Adams and Josiah Quincy successfully defend Captain Preston and six of his men, who are acquitted. Two other soldiers are found guilty of manslaughter, branded, then released. 1772 In June, a British customs schooner, the Gaspee, runs aground off Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay. Colonists from Providence row out to the schooner and attack it, set the British crew ashore, then burn the ship. In September, a 500 pound reward is offered by the English Crown for the capture of those colonists, who would then be sent to England for trial. The announcement that they would be sent to England further upsets many American colonists. 1772 In November, a Boston town meeting assembles, called by Sam Adams. During the meeting, a 21 member committee of correspondence is appointed to communicate with other towns and colonies. A few weeks later, the town meeting endorses three radical proclamations asserting the rights of the colonies to self-rule. 1773 In March, the Virginia House of Burgesses appoints an eleven member committee of correspondence to communicate with the other colonies regarding common complaints against the British. Members of that committee include, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee. Virginia is followed a few months later by New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut and South Carolina. 1773 May 10, the Tea Act takes effect. It maintains a threepenny per pound import tax on tea arriving in the colonies, which had already been in effect for six years. It also gives the near bankrupt British East India Company a virtual tea monopoly by allowing it to sell directly to colonial agents, bypassing any middlemen, thus underselling American merchants. The East India Company had successfully lobbied Parliament for such a measure. In September, Parliament authorizes the company to ship half a million pounds of tea to a group of chosen tea agents. 1773 In October, colonists hold a mass meeting in Philadelphia in opposition to the tea tax and the monopoly of the East India Company. A committee then forces British tea agents to resign their positions. In November, a town meeting is held in Boston endorsing the actions taken by Philadelphia colonists. Bostonians then try, but fail, to get their British tea agents to resign. A few weeks later, three ships bearing tea sail into Boston harbor. 1773 November 29/30, two mass meetings occur in Boston over what to do about the tea aboard the three ships now docked in Boston harbor. Colonists decide to send the tea on the ship, Dartmouth, back to England without paying any import duties. The Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson, is opposed to this and orders harbor officials not to let the ship sail out of the harbor unless the tea taxes have been paid. December 16, 1773 About 8000 Bostonians gather to hear Sam Adams tell them Royal Governor Hutchinson has repeated his command not to allow the ships out of the harbor until the tea taxes are paid. That night, the Boston Tea Party occurs as colonial activists disguise themselves as Mohawk Indians then board the ships and dump all 342 containers of tea into the harbor. 1774 In March, an angry English Parliament passes the first of a series of Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts by Americans) in response to the rebellion in Massachusetts. The Boston Port Bill effectively shuts down all commercial shipping in Boston harbor until Massachusetts pays the taxes owed on the tea dumped in the harbor and also reimburses the East India Company for the loss of the tea. 1774 May 12, Bostonians at a town meeting call for a boycott of British imports in response to the Boston Port Bill. May 13, General Thomas Gage, commander of all British military forces in the colonies, arrives in Boston and replaces Hutchinson as Royal governor, putting Massachusetts under military rule. He is followed by the arrival of four regiments of British troops. 1774 May 17-23, colonists in Providence, New York and Philadelphia begin calling for an intercolonial congress to overcome the Coercive Acts and discuss a common course of action against the British. 1774 May 20, The English Parliament enacts the next series of Coercive Acts, which include the Massachusetts Regulating Act and the Government Act virtually ending any self-rule by the colonists there. Instead, the English Crown and the Royal governor assume political power formerly exercised by colonists. Also enacted; the Administration of Justice Act which protects royal officials in Massachusetts from being sued in colonial courts, and the Quebec Act establishing a centralized government in Canada controlled by the Crown and English Parliament. The Quebec Act greatly upsets American colonists by extending the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia. 1774 In June, a new version of the 1765 Quartering Act is enacted by the English Parliament requiring all of the American colonies to provide housing for British troops in occupied houses and taverns and in unoccupied buildings. In September, Massachusetts Governor Gage seizes that colonys arsenal of weapons at Charlestown. 1774 September 5 to October 26, the First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia with 56 delegates, representing every colony, except Georgia. Attendants include Patrick Henry, George Washington, Sam Adams and John Hancock. On September 17, the Congress declares its opposition to the Coercive Acts, saying they are not to be obeyed, and also promotes the formation of local militia units. On October 14, a Declaration and Resolves is adopted that opposes the Coercive Acts, the Quebec Act, and other measure taken by the British that undermine self-rule. The rights of the colonists are asserted, including the rights to life, liberty and property. On October 20, the Congress adopts the Continental Association in which delegates agree to a boycott of English imports, effect an embargo of exports to Britain, and discontinue the slave trade. 1775 February 1, in Cambridge, Mass. , a provincial congress is held during which John Hancock and Joseph Warren begin defensive preparations for a state of war. February 9, the English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. March 23, in Virginia, Patrick Henry delivers a speech against British rule, stating, Give me liberty or give me death! March 30, the New England Restraining Act is endorsed by King George III, requiring New England colonies to trade exclusively with England and also bans fishing in the North Atlantic. 1775 In April, Massachusetts Governor Gage is ordered to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress open rebellion among the colonists by all necessary force.