Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Monsoons in India

It involves clearing a patch of forest land, but retaining useful trees and plant varieties, cultivating it for two to three years and then abandoning it for 10-20 years to allow the natural forest to grow back and the soil to regain its fertility. The cycle of cultivation, leaving it fallow and coming back to it for cultivation, is called the Jhum cycle. Traditionally, a village community owns/controls the forest land and decides on such rotational cultivation pattern. Thus the community cultivates land for its livelihood while practising conservation and taking care of the ecological balance. However, with the population pressure, communities wanting to grow more food have cleared greater chunks of forest lands and returned to the fallow plots much sooner than 10-20 years. The length of the fallow phase between two successive cropping phases has come down to even two to three years in some places. This has resulted in soil degradation, fall in yield, lower returns, and reduction in green cover. It is this change in traditional practice, arising out of changing conditions, that has given jhum agriculture a bad name. Separately, forests are being exploited for timber and hills are being flattened for soil and stones. Often, this denuding of the forest too is blamed upon jhum cultivation. The state government has come out with various schemes to provide the jhumais with alternate means of livelihood and wean them away from jhuming. However the needs of the jhum cultivators have not been assessed rightly and these schemes have met with limited success or have completely failed. It is important to state here that shifting cultivation should not be confused with slash-and-burn. Slash-and-burn is a mere land clearing method used by many people around the globe to open up forest land and use it for permanent agriculture. On the contrary, shifting cultivation is an integrated farming system involving forestry, agriculture and strong social organisation on the part of the communities. Ecologically, the practice of jhum has a deleterious effect on the local environment, while others have often thwarted those arguments and proved that jhum in fact is a sustainable form of agricultural production best suited for the specific ecology of the hill regions. The arguments against jhum have included projecting it as an unsustainable practice that depletes the soil of nutrients, reducing the forest cover, causing landslides, etc. Arguments against jhum have come from state forestry departments, development ministries like DONER (Development Of North East Region) or trade promoting entities like the World Bank who lean towards utilisation of the region's forest resources for the benefit of national and private capital. In addition, private entities wishing to utilise the land for specific profit-making ventures, like extraction industries, utilise these arguments to push the state to wean away local villagers from practicing jhum in order to lease the land. This has happened in the hill regions of Meghalaya and Assam where corrupt or otherwise, village councils leased out land to private and national corporations for extraction industries including coal, limestone, and uranium in the future. In addition, the paper industry has pushed for the growth of bamboo by villagers as a cash crop replacing an egalitarian cultivation system with one that has created a small mercantilist class controlling all bamboo production. However, these arguments have been rebutted by many scientists, including studies by organisations like the Indian Institute of Science, Tata Energy Research Institute and UNESCO who have proved in different ways that jhum is indeed a sustainable form of agriculture best suited to the rainy hill regions of Northeast India, over other forms of agriculture such as valley or terrace cultivation. Studies have further proved that, contrary to arguments of soil infertility, the practice of jhum ensures that fallowness in the soil is not compromised on, and often rapid regeneration of the vegetation takes place once a tract of land is abandoned after cultivation. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change & its Impact on India India, the seventh largest country in the world and the second largest in Asia, has a total geographical area of 329 Mha, of which only 305 Mha is the reporting area (the area as per the land records of villages and towns). The mainland stretches from 8 4†² N to 37 6†² N and 68 7†² E to 97 25†² E. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516 km. India, the seventh largest country in the world and the second largest in Asia, has a total geographical area of 329 Mha, of which only 305 Mha is the reporting area (the area as per the land records of villages and towns). The mainland stretches from 8o4†² N to 37o6†² N and 68o7†² E to 97o 25†² E. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516 km. In developing countries like India, climate change could represent an additional stress on cological and socioeconomic systems that are already facing tremendous pressures due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development. With its huge and growing population, a 7500-km long densely populated and low-lying coastline, and an economy that is closely tied to its natural resource base, India is considerably vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The various studies conducted in the country have shown that the surface air temperatures in India are going up at the rate of 0. 4oC per hundred years, particularly during the post-monsoon and winter season. Using models, they predict that mean winter temperatures will increase by as much as 3. 2oC in the 2050s and 4. 5oC by 2080s, due to Greenhouse gases. Summer temperatures will increase by 2. 2oC in the 2050s and 3. 2oC in the 2080s. Extreme temperatures and heat spells have already become common over Northern India, often causing loss of human life. In 1998 alone, 650 deaths occurred in Orissa due to heat waves. Climate change has had an effect on the monsoons too. India is heavily dependent on the monsoon to meet its agricultural and water needs, and also for protecting and propagating its rich biodiversity. Subtle changes have already been noted in the monsoon rain patterns by scientists at IIT, Delhi. They also warn that India will experience a decline in summer rainfall by the 2050s, summer rainfall accounts for almost 70% of the total annual rainfall over India and is crucial to Indian agriculture. Relatively small climatic changes can cause large water resource problems, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions such as northwest India. This will have an impact on agriculture, drinking water and on generation of hydro-electric power. Apart from monsoon rains, India uses perennial rivers, which originate and depend on glacial melt-water in the Hindukush and Himalayan ranges. Since the melting season coincides with the summer monsoon season, any intensification of the monsoon is likely to contribute to flood disasters in the Himalayan catchment. Rising temperatures will also contribute to the raising of snowline, reducing the capacity of this natural reservoir, and increasing the risk of flash floods during the wet season. Increased temperatures will impact agricultural production. Higher temperatures reduce the total duration of a crop cycle by inducing early flowering, thus shortening the `grain fill’ period. The shorter the crop cycle, the lower the yield per unit area. A trend of sea level rise of 1 cm per decade has been recorded along the Indian coast. Sea level rise due to thermal expansion of sea water in the Indian Ocean is expected to be about 25-040 cm by 2050. This could inundate low lying areas, down coastal marshes and wetlands, erode beaches, exacerbate flooding and increase the salinity of rivers, bays and aquifers. Deltas will be threatened by flooding, erosion and salt intrusion. Loss of coastal mangroves will have an impact on fisheries. The major delta area of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus rivers, which have large populations reliant on riverine resources will be affected by changes in water regimes, salt water intrusions and land loss. Increase in temperatures will result in shifts of lower altitude tropical and subtropical forests to higher altitude temperate forest regions, resulting in the extinction of some temperate vegetation types. Decrease in rainfall and the resultant soil moisture stress could result in drier teak dominated forests replacing sal trees in central India. Increased dry spells could also place dry and moist deciduous forests at increased risk from forest fires. Medical Science suggests that the rise in temperature and change in humidity will adversely affect human health in India. Heat stress could result in heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heal stroke, and damage physiological functions, metabolic processes and immune systems. Increased temperatures can increase the range of vector borne diseases such as malaria, particularly in regions where minimum temperatures currently limited pathogen and vector development. as one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Econ omic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000. This policy intended to make SEZs an engine for economic growth supported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the Centre and the State level, with the minimum possible regulations. SEZs in India functioned from 1. 11. 2000 to 09. 02. 2006 under the provisions of the Foreign Trade Policy and fiscal incentives were made effective through the provisions of relevant statutes. To instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to mpart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through the establishment of SEZs, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions with the stakeholders. A number of meetings were held in various parts of the country both by the Minister for Commerce and Industry as well as senior officials for this purpose. The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005 whic h received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005. The draft SEZ Rules were widely discussed and put on the website of the Department of Commerce offering suggestions/comments. Around 800 suggestions were received on the draft rules. After extensive consultations, the SEZ Act, 2005, supported by SEZ Rules, came into effect on 10th February, 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as state governments. The main objectives of the SEZ Act are: (a)generation of additional economic activity (b)promotion of exports of goods and services; c)promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources; (d)creation of employment opportunities; (e)development of infrastructure facilities; It is expected that this will trigger a large flow of foreign and domestic investment in SEZs, in infrastructure and productive capacity, leading to generation of additional economic activity and creation of employment opportunities. The SEZ Act 2005 envisages key role for th e State Governments in Export Promotion and creation of related infrastructure. A Single Window SEZ approval mechanism has been provided through a 19 member inter-ministerial SEZ Board of Approval (BoA). The applications duly recommended by the respective State Governments/UT Administration are considered by this BoA periodically. All decisions of the Board of approvals are with consensus. The SEZ Rules provide for different minimum land requirement for different class of SEZs. Every SEZ is divided into a processing area where alone the SEZ units would come up and the non-processing area where the supporting infrastructure is to be created. was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set p in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000. This policy intended to make SEZs an engine for economic growth sup ported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the Centre and the State level, with the minimum possible regulations. SEZs in India functioned from 1. 11. 2000 to 09. 02. 006 under the provisions of the Foreign Trade Policy and fiscal incentives were made effective through the provisions of relevant statutes. To instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to impart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through the establishment of SEZs, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions with the stakeholders. A number of meetings were held in various parts of the country both by the Minister for Commerce and Industry as well as senior officials for this purpose. The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005 which received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005. The draft SEZ Rules were widely discussed and put on the website of the Department of Commerce offering suggestions/comments. Around 800 suggestions were received on the draft rules. After extensive consultations, the SEZ Act, 2005, supported by SEZ Rules, came into effect on 10th February, 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as state governments.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Love Conquers All Essay

I believe that a relationship is more than just love, it’s a balance of communication, love, and trust. The day I fell in love was a defining moment in my life. I now had a partner and a life long friend . My husband and I spent the first part of our marriage struggling over money issues. There was never enough money to take care of all the bills and the kids, as well as our moments. Still through all the rough hills we climbed, nothing ever broke our bond to each other. My husband tried repeatedly to find work so that he could support his family; he was so determined. At last an opportunity to build bridges emerged and he went for it. Grateful we were going to be financially secure, we now have three times the income he was making. Everything was looking up! We would not have to scrape by anymore. With the new career also came new challenges, my husband would be out of town five days a week. We have never even been apart! How was this going to work? I was a little scared to be alone, so we sat down and discussed the challenges together. I learned that he was nervous too. He was going to be so far away and could not protect his family. We just bonded together, it was emotional. We knew it was going to be a great opportunity for our family. â€Å"I am going to miss you so much, this is going to be tough†, I said while standing by his packed car. He pulled me in and held me tightly in his arms, kissing my forehead ever so gently and whispered,†I love you so much and this will only make us stronger.† We kissed each other good bye and away he drove. Then I cried! Week after week it became easier to say bye, but the tears always filled my eyes when I watched him drive away. This was the hardest thing we ever went through. During the time he worked out of town I became a stronger woman and mother. I learned that love can conquer all. We worked together more than ever before and we grew to understand just how much our family†¦

On Being A Real Westerner

The adult individual is oftentimes defined by a childhood image of himself so that even if he tries to move away or change his personality, the old personality still emerges again and again so that ultimately it becomes hard to lie to the self. Furthermore, one cannot regret one’s childhood or past as much as one cannot bring them back and change what happened. The individual is only left to deal with what has become of him because of his experiences during childhood. These truths are what Woolf imparts to the reader in his essay, On Being A Real Westerner.He explicitly states this idea in the final paragraph when he confesses that â€Å"all my images of myself as I wished to be were images of myself armed. Because I did not know who I was, any image of myself, no matter how grotesque had power over me. But the man can give no help to the boy, not in this matter nor in those that follow. † The entire essay focuses on a single experience which the writer believes defined him throughout life. This was the moment when he assumed the image of a rifle-toting Westerner. The introductory paragraph begins the story: the day when the author receives the rifle.The introduction hooks the reader who likes action in his stories because it presents the image of a young boy and a rifle. One would get intrigued as to what a young boy would do with a rifle and sense a foreboding tragedy coming on. Wolff follows through the episode with chronological scenes, as events happened from the time his brother gave him the Winchester rifle to the time he succumbed to the burning desire to pull the trigger and experience both the pleasure and guilt of killing a living thing even if it is only a squirrel.This single experience is narrated through a series of eight separate cut-scenes: Roy gives him the rifle but his mother asks him to give it back; his mother eventually relents after much convincing and cajoling; the author is cleaning the rifle and then marching around the house with it while dressed in Roy’s army uniform; he is crouched by the drawn shades, following the people on the street and pretending to shoot; he takes some real bullets, loads the rifle and practices cocking; he pulls the trigger and kills a squirrel; he tells his mother about the dead squirrel and he helps her bury it; and, lying in bed at night while thinking about what he had done earlier. Presenting these series of images cued by phrases like â€Å"after a few days† or â€Å"for a week† moves the story along and makes the reader understand that the child grows up emotionally through the succession of scenes until the final realization of what that episode in childhood has affected him in life.It is notable to mention one scene that sticks out in the sense that it talks about a different time, that of the author as a grown-up and herding Vietnamese prisoners during the war. This one paragraph introduced halfway through the narrative makes the reader unde rstand that the story being narrated refers to the author’s past. The only other time when this point is reiterated is during the last paragraph. Except for these two instances, the entire essay is a narrative of a single experience in the author’s childhood. The mention of the Vietnam War scene is included for the author to illustrate the feeling of how it is like to hold a rifle but not to use it.According to him, both as a child and as an adult with a rifle aimed at others, the satisfaction is to have these people being aimed at to be aware that they are facing the possibility of death so that they might fear the power of the one holding the rifle. He inserts the image of him as a grown-up while describing the same act being done by himself as a child, for the reader to compare the similarities of both images. Both the child and the man holding a rifle are supposed to evoke the same emotions on the part of the reader, further reiterating the theme of the essay. The concluding paragraph summarizes for the reader the meaning and purpose of the entire narrative. The boy has become a man but somehow, he has not been able to shake off the childhood image of himself as a rifle-toting Westerner.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Measure the Current Understanding of Chlamydia in the UK Essay

Measure the Current Understanding of Chlamydia in the UK - Essay Example Chlamydia is very common in western countries. â€Å"Chlamydia is the most common STI in the UK. It affects both sexes, although young women are more at risk. In 2009, 216,000 people were treated at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics for Chlamydia. Of these, 130,000 were women, and 86,000 were men. Many more cases were treated by GPs or by private doctors. And it’s thought that tens of thousands of other people have caught the infection, but they are unaware that they’ve got it. Screening has recently shown that in some parts of Britain, 10 per cent to 20 per cent young adults have Chlamydia† (Okkhattak 2012). Chlamydia is known as a silent disease, because in most cases Chlamydia doesn’t show any symptoms. â€Å"Around 70-80% of women with Chlamydia don't notice any symptoms. If women do get symptoms, the most common  include:   Pain when urinating (peeing) A change in vaginal discharge Pain in the lower abdomen Pain and/or bleeding during sex Blee ding after sex Bleeding between periods Heavier periods than usual† (Symptoms of Chlamydia 2011). As many as 1 in 4 men with Chlamydia have no symptoms. In men, Chlamydia may produce symptoms similar to gonorrhea. Symptoms may include: Burning sensation during urination Discharge from the penis or rectum Testicular tenderness  or pain Rectal discharge or pain† (Chlamydia 2010). 1. Prevalence of STIs in England then lead to the prevalence of STIs in London, then link it to Chlamydia. There has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases in the United Kingdom, especially among the young. â€Å"In 2009 there were 482, 696 new STI diagnoses in the UK, 3 per cent more than in 2008. Young people aged between 15 and 24 continue to be the group most affected by STIs in the UK. In 2009, around two thirds of new STI diagnoses in women were in those aged under 25, and over half of the new diagnoses in men were in under 25s† (Sexually Trans mitted Infections Fact sheet (November 2010)). The residents of urban areas in London are more affected with acute STIs. There can be many reasons for that, like increased population, more people having sex with infected people etc. Chlamydia is the most common STI, diagnosed in the United Kingdom. â€Å"Since 1999 the number of annual cases of Chlamydia has more than doubled. In 2008 there were 123,018 new diagnoses of Chlamydia in GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinics, which was a record number. Between 2008 and 2009, an estimated 16 percent of young people aged between 15 and 24 in England were tested for Chlamydia at a community setting (outside GUM clinics).By 2009, an estimated 1.5 million Chlamydia tests performed under the programme† (STD Statistics and STDs in the UK n.d.). The rate of Chlamydia infection will be much larger, since Chlamydia remains undetected, and also because people don’t come forward for testing. But Chlamydia can be easily diagnosed and if diagnosed, and treated, it is easily curable. 2. What are the modes of transmission of STI’s especially Chlamydia? In gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, HIV, hepatitis, STI is transmitted by vaginal, anal or oral sex, in which exchange of body fluids takes place. It can also be transmitted through skin to skin contact, like genital warts, herpes, scabies, and pubic lice. Some are transmitted thro

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Major Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Major Project - Essay Example The leadership of the organization has to pronounce their promise to support the safety programs boldly. Policies of the organization regarding safety and health management should address issues relating to the purpose of having a health safety programs. Measures are taken to safeguard the employees in the workplace and policies that protect the health and safety of an employee. The input of the worker in coming up with safety and health measures is very vital because their interests will be for because the policies affect them directly (OSHA, 2013). XYZ Company needs to form a special task force that should be the responsibility of investigating accidents in the workplace. The composition of the team should include representatives from the different departments in the organization to ensure theirs equal representation. Proper investigations should be on health and safety issues monthly reports should be done to evaluate made in addressing safety and health issues. Through such a taskforce, cases that deserve compensation will be in time hence avoiding legal lawsuits that seem to have drained the company’s revenues in the 2013 financial year (OSHA, 2013). It is prudent that the organization identifies high-risk zones within an organization and caution employees in advance. Some areas in the organization can be classified as high-risk zones because they pose severe threats to the health and safety of employees. It is important to create awareness amongst employees and discourage them from accessing such areas unnecessarily without getting prior permission. Training employees who operate in the danger zones is very essential because it offers them skills that can help them avoid accidents. When a hazard is in advance, it becomes simple to come up with measures that can be used to control them and lessen the severity of

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Four Noble Truths and the Life of Siddhartha Gautama Essay

The Four Noble Truths and the Life of Siddhartha Gautama - Essay Example To live means to suffer. Throughout our lives, we experience suffering irrespective of we want it or not. Everything in life leads to suffering of one form or another, sometime physical and sometimes psychological. Both physical and psychological sufferings such as tiredness, sickness, pain, old age, injury, depression, frustration, disappointment, fear, sadness and finally death are inevitable. Life is not all about suffering as we do experience positive feelings such as happiness and comfort. But to believe that life is all about such positive experiences and emotions is to live in a delusion. Life is not perfect and definitely not complete. The world we live is subject to impermanence. Everything changes, and positive emotions and feelings also do change. It is not always possible to get what one wants. Therefore, suffering is an integral part of life and everybody experiences it in one form or another and to variable degrees. Life is a suffering is the first of the four noble tru ths1. This is illustrated in Buddha’s life when he goes on ride through the countryside. During his journey he saw an old man, a sick man and a corpse. This signifies the hard realities and suffering of life which no one can escape: old age, sickness and death2. Noble Truth of Origin of Suffering Being attached to things that are transient and the ignorance that they are transient is the cause of all origin. It is in this attachment and ignorance that lays the origin of suffering. Transient things are not just limited to physical objects but include everything from our ideas to concepts. Nothing is permanent and constantly changes. Attachment to these transient things and ignoring the fact that they will not remain forever is the root cause of suffering. That is, craving and clinging on transient things is what causes suffering. Desire, popularity, fame, passion, wealth, prestige, ardour, self image, etc are the various transient things that lead to suffering3. This is illust rated in Buddha’s life when he leaves the palace and goes in search of enlightenment. But his father, the king, had always believed that the palaces he had created were enough to keep his son happy and in turn keep him happy. All that he had created for his son were transient and as a result had created him a transient environment. But it all fell apart when Buddha decided to give up everything and this caused a lot of pain and suffering to the king. He was attached to his son and the things that he had created for his son4. Noble Truth of Cessation of Suffering The suffering can be stopped and the way to do it is to eliminate the cause of the suffering. That is, the suffering can stopped by eliminating the conceptual attachment and sensual craving. Therefore, the suffering can be overcome by detaching from the transient things which are the cause of suffering. It is by attaining and perfecting complete dispassion that the suffering can be completely removed from one’s life5. Buddha gave up all transient things in search of enlightenment. He left all the pleasures and attachments of the palace and decided to live as a ascetic. He also detached himself from human bonds of family (father, wife and son). He eliminated all causes of suffering from his life6. Noble Truth of the Way to the Cessation of Suffering The path to cessation of suffering is one of self-improvement. The path to self improvement is neither of the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Biodiversity Hotspots Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Biodiversity Hotspots - Essay Example While some of the plant and animal species in an ecosystem may be increasing in population, others may be actually decreasing or facing extinction (Bowen, P. 56). The fact that these species of plants and animals may soon become extinct is a wake-up call to the governments and other stakeholder organizations and individuals to multiply their biodiversity conservation and preservation efforts. In fact, for organisms such as insects, algae and fungi on which little are known compared to other larger organisms, more needs to be done to protect them from extinction (Bowen, P. 55). In addition, there are myriad larger animal species that face severe extinction threats and more should be done to preserve them. A community of plants and animals living together in a location and the various environmental processes and factors that directly and indirectly influence their lives is referred to as ecosystem. In other words, ecosystem refers to the elements that make biodiversity possible by supp orting the lives of animals and plants living in a community through the provision of valuable resources. For in instance, in an ecosystem, wetlands help in the cleaning of water, controlling of floods and filtering of toxic substances out of water bodies. Similarly, estuaries are nurseries for marine life while forests are the chief suppliers of oxygen and fresh water to an ecosystem besides their role in controlling soil erosion and levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Bowen, P. 56). Student 1 Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity hotspot refers to a region or an area in which natural ecosystems that are fundamentally native and intact species or communities of living organisms are naturally well represented and supported. In other definitions, a biodiversity hotspot could be an area that is richly populated with locally endemic species of plants and animals, which in most cases, are not found in regions outside the said hotspot (Novacek, P. 89). Unfortunate for most of the bio diversity hotspots in the world today, many of the management practices at these spots do great compromise and harm to the ecological balance at these spots since they place the natural values and resources of these spots at risk. This risk is likely to increase if not checked, resulting in the decreasing or extinction of certain endangered species of living organisms. There is thus the need for active conservation management practices at all the world’s biodiversity hotspots to ensure the survival of endangered species of plants and animals. The only source of hope for most biodiversity hotspots in the world is that most of the natural values of these spots are quite intact and it will only require the formulation and implementation of conservation actions that would maintain and improve these natural values (Novacek, P. 97). Protecting and conserving biodiversity hotspots should therefore be the concern of everyone in the society, more so governments. In this context, gover nments must establish programmes that emphasize activities that would improve the conservation of hotspots on both private and communal/public land. Similar course of action should be initiated at all levels of the society: that is, at the local, national, regional and international scales. There are quite a number of renowned biodiversity hotspots in the world. Most common are the thousands of islands in the major oceans of the world such as the Indian, the Pacific

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Major disadvantages of pizza hut interactive table Essay

Major disadvantages of pizza hut interactive table - Essay Example Second, the platform is vulnerable to uncertainties of technology. Software bugs and failures during a busy session will bring a restaurant to stand still. This will be especially the case if customers get overly used to the platform. It is worth noting that the platform is yet to be tested severely and such software bugs and failures are a possibility. The way to overcome this challenge is through pilot testing the platform before rolling it out fully. Thirdly, the system like any other electronic system is vulnerable to malicious hacking. Malicious hackers may hack the platform and modify customer order contents. This will likely cause uproar in a restaurant as customers get served with what they did not actually order. In order to overcome this challenge, an alternative method should be readily available in case of a failure of the platform. Zolfagharifard, Ellie. Pizza Hut reveals interactive table concept that lets you design your perfect pie. Daily Mail, 4 March, 2014. Web. April 28, 2015.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Serving Customers in Global Markets Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Serving Customers in Global Markets - Essay Example Why: Apple Inc took home repeat Brand of the Year distinctions in three categories—Tablet, Computer and Mobile Phone in 2013. Apple scored strong points for all elements of Brand Equity namely Quality, Familiarity and Purchase Consideration. In the world of tablets, Apple’s iPad series which expanded its offerings in 2012 with the iPad mini and it received the Tablet Brand of the Year award for second consecutive year. The Apple has a more than 100 products under its brand. Purpose: The reason for going into 1 Crossgates Mall Road Albany, NY 12203 is to evaluate the service levels which are offered by the staff present in the store. This is important since it affects the customer satisfaction with respect to product and pricing offered to them. Location: The location was chosen since it was reputed of being the best place to test-drive and explore Apple products. Under one place one can easily find every product of Apple including one of the most knowledgeable Apple people. Choice of Provider: The main reason for choosing Apple Inc. is that the company is world renowned for its top quality products meeting the customer expectation. Apple came out with innovative products like Tablet, iPad, iPhone etc. which revolutionized the mobile industry. Again it is known for good customer service. Expectation: My expectation is that the shop should have all the recent products released by Apple available along with good customer service support staff that should be knowledgeable at resolving my issue and a pleasant atmosphere. Segmentation- Segmentation of the market is very important as it is the key process of capturing the market share and launching the product. When a particular product is been developed by any company it need to find out which segment of customers can utilize that particular product. Apple came up with the i-phone with all the latest technologies in build in, it had kept the price of the product high and segmented it in the

History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

History - Essay Example The movement received wide level of recognition and support among the urban youths and the marginalised urban poor. In the same way, supporters of the movement included diverse grassroots organizations from the rural areas and provincial cities, peasant organizations, civic, political and economic networks, and professional cadres. The proponents of the movement also aimed at dismantling dictatorship and building â€Å"a democratic state that prioritised the demands of the excluded and exploited majority and their full participation in deciding the agenda of their communities and of the nation† (Dupuy 91). A critical evaluation of the movement convinces one that the legacy of Haiti’s revolution has had great influence on the objectives, as well as outcome, of the Lavalas movement and this calls for the need to unearth the influences of Haitian revolution on the Lavalas movement. The Haitian Revolution has often been regarded as the most successful rebellion initiated by the slaves in 1791that culminated in the abolition of slavery and French domination. In fact, the revolutionaries were influenced by the French revolution itself and fought for equality, fraternity and liberty. Even though, the Haiti revolution was proved to be successful, poverty, were political and economic instability haunted the nation.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Prevention of Crime and Disorder Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Prevention of Crime and Disorder - Assignment Example There is adequate external lighting to deter crime. There are employees who check on incoming customers and customers inside. These staff can be easily identified through their uniform and name tags. The Casino is always searched inside and outside before, during, and after opening hours for suspect packages. There are also guidelines on crime, violence, and aggression in and around the casino. When there are events that attract larger than usual crowds, the Casino liaises with the police. It also ensures that there is proper management of the door such that there are a high number of door supervisors when there is an event. There are admissions for only people above 18years and screening of people. If persons fail to meet the admission standards or become violent, they are denied entry or ejected. People known to be violent are banned from the casino. All incidences of crime or violence are recorded in the incidence book. During events, there is the use of plastic drinking vessels instead of glass drinking vessels to prevent the assault. Staff are trained in conflict management to help them deal with difficult situations, reduce violence, and disorders. Drugs and weapons entering the premises. There is a zero tolerance for the use and carrying weapons in the business. Everyone is searched at the door before entering. There are policies displayed in the casino to emphasis customers of a zero tolerance to drugs. When customers are suspected of use or possession of drugs, police are notified. Staffs are trained on drug awareness. The general safety of staff and customers. There is risk management done on the casino to identify potential hazards to staff and customers and to determine a solution to manage them. Staffs are made aware of the risks and precautionary measures to take. There are also first aid boxes in the casino, and they are properly maintained. Employees are trained on the use of the first aid equipment. Accumulation and disposal of glasses.  Ã‚  

Monday, July 22, 2019

This is England Essay Example for Free

This is England Essay †This is England† is about a 12-year-old boy named Shaun. He lives in England and is bullied in/at school. He lives alone with his mother because his dad died in war. One day he meets a group of skinheads who wants him to join their group. Even though Shaun is young, he is not afraid of the skinheads. He joins the group and quickly becomes their favorite member. Shaun has probably been forced to act older than he is, because of his dads’ early death. In the movie he makes out with an older girl, goes to skinhead meetings, and joins the nationalists, which all is unusual for such a young boy. He easily gets influenced by the apparent friendliness from the group. Woody is the leader of the skinhead group. He is the one who welcomes Shaun and teaches him how to be a real skinhead. In the beginning he is a role model to Shaun and he helps him to deal with his problems. Woody’s girlfriend Lol helps him too. She cuts his hair, and is being really nice to him. Woody and Lol are like a substitute father and mother to him. Finally Shaun has a sense of belonging somewhere. â€Å"The skinheads† is a group of people who really care about him. Especially when he meets Smell, he finds out what it feels like to be in love. Milky is another member of the group. He is the only black person and when Combo shows up that causes him troubles. Combo is a skinhead too, who has been to prison for the last couple of years. He has now returned, and wants the other members of the group to join the nationalist movement and protest against the war. Combo has some racist views, and when he starts talking bad about the blacks no one in the group stands up for Milky. The group split up, and Shaun chooses to join Combo’s group together with 3 others. Combo is now his new role model, and he uses the death of Shaun’s father to convince him that what they are doing is right. Shaun is manipulated and cannot see how far out he is before it is too late. They rob a little store, threaten people and paint graffiti. One day Combo and Milky smokes crack, and suddenly Combo burst out with anger and starts hitting Milky. He gets badly wounded and is taken to hospital. Shaun realizes that what they are doing is wrong. He talks to his mother about how they both miss his father. He throws out the Union Jack flag which Combo has given him, which is a symbol of the facts that he is now done with the skinheads. Somehow, the whole thing has helped Shaun to deal with his grieve. Even though he misses his dad, he finds out that there is more in life than taking revenge. He steps of the illegal path he has been following and decides to become a proper person. His intention was never to hurt anyone, because he knows what it feels like to be hurt. A chapter of his life is over and done with, and a brand new one is about to be written.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Bay Of Pigs Historiography

Bay Of Pigs Historiography March 1960 marked the future of international relations between the United States and Cuba. The epic battle at the Bay of Pigs defined irrationalities between the two nations. U.S. President of the time, Dwight D. Eisenhower, ordered the central intelligence agency, otherwise known as the CIA, to use their special activities division to train, equip, and lead Cuban exiles in an invasion of Cuba. This was elaborately planned to overthrow the new communist government led by Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz. Eisenhower justified his cooperation for his opposing position stating it was the policy of the United States to aid the anti-Castro guerrilla forces. The original CIA plan called for a ship-borne invasion at the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba. Trinidad had good port facilities, and arguably was close to much existing counter-revolutionary activities. The CIA later proposed alternative plans, and on March 11, 1961 President Kennedy and his cabinet selected the Bay of Pigs option. Dur ing the invasion Kennedy decided not to send the air support to Cuba, for it would cause Soviet Russia to believe the United States was only a vicious world leader, giving them liable reason to attack America. However troops did not respond well to Kennedys decision since Castro took that moment to capture U.S. Military officials. The catastrophe was solely blamed on the president at the time. Like several times in history, the United States claimed it was their duty to set democratic policies in the small but important country; spreading a peaceful and efficient government gave people equal rights and laws all the while separating the elite government officials from the common population. Furthermore Castro would be unable to harm the people of Cuba if he were no longer in power, thus decreasing the illegal immigration from Cuba to America. As far as the United States was concerned it was necessary for the invasion to set some standards of living in the troubled country. However like all wars or arguments there is an opposing side and Cuba was not concerned with the same matter. Castro was furious his own people were invading their homeland. Unfortunately because he was the highest authority at the time, he initially ordered those few individuals to be exiled. The people of Cuba wanted freedom and support from a government that was anything but just. The communist country made no attempts to help its people , when concerned with gaining higher power. Castro was looked down upon as a dictator of the time despite his disapproval of dictatorships. The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute, although most sources generally credit Fidel Castro with centrally directing the overall strategy from Havana. Today the Bay of Pigs invasion is once again looked through two different perspectives. The United States is content in believing their decision to invade was correct and history has obviously repeated itself with the recent war in Irag and the decision to invade Pakistan. However there are several controversial theories claiming President Kennedy did not in fact order the cease of the air support. Many historians believe the CIA went against official government orders and took it upon themselves to delay the message to aircraft transporters. John F. Kennedy may simply be the innocent by-standard that issued a command that small, tangent groups refused to follow. The argument once again has an opposition, and Castro-followers believe Kennedy and Castro might have been in a secret society together; somewhat of a masonic cult of their own. Conspiracies continue to arise throughout our modern historical perspectives yet our history cannot be rerecorded. Of course relations between the United States and Cuba only became worse with the Cuban Missile Crisis and extend to sour interactions into present day history. Today Cuba and America are far from cooperating neighbors and the battle continues. Until Castros recent exit from the Cuban government office in 2008 and the reelection of the United States President, both nations have constantly vowed to fight until the end. We ceased trade with Cuba while they released all of their fugitive prisoners to contribute to the illegal immigration overload in America. They have waged vengeance upon each other like angry siblings without parental supervision. Even as a leading world power the American government has done little to compromise and solve the international affairs. With the hope of a new government in control of both countries, the history is at chance to change for the better and one day prosper as an ally.

Importance of Having an Inter Professional Team

Importance of Having an Inter Professional Team This essay is meant to throw light on the importance of having an inter professional team that would make the service delivery to patients easier. In this essay I will discuss the roles played by nurses and other professionals in the team. The essay will reflect the efficiency of such a team and their work distribution and involvement. I will highlight the ways in which a team of professionals will work together to take proper decisions during emergency situations and tackle them effectively. The essay will also critically evaluate the various concepts of inter professional team work. An interprofessional team is a group of people who have a certain common goals or objectives which drives them to work together by setting aside individual goals. Inter professional team can be defined as a dynamic process involving two or more health care professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care, accomplished through interdependent collaboration, open communication and shared decision-making, and generates value-added patient, organizational and staff outcomes (Xyrichis and Ream 2007). Freeth et al (2005) defined inter professional team work as when two or more professional learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care. The healthcare sector started showing interest in the interprofessional working during the early 1990. (Institute of Medicine, 1998;ONeil and Pew Health Professions Commission 1998;ÂÂ  Pew Health Professions Commission 1995a,ÂÂ  1995b,ÂÂ  1998). The Association of American Medical Colleges, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing suggested that the graduates must have enough knowledge in interprofessional collaboration (Varkey, Reller, Smith, Ponet, OsbornÂÂ  , 2006). Varkey et.al (2006) also pointed out that there should be enough cooperation between the various professionals in healthcare field for the success of this profession. But unfortunately this fact is not included in the curriculum of the different medical schools in USA. Inter professional teams are more effective in rehabilitating the patients than individual health care professionals. The number of patients having positive impact by the inter professional service is larger than those by individual service providers. A very strategic role played by nurses is highlighted now. The nursing tutors face the dual challenge of preparing their students enter into nursing profession as well as equip them to cooperate effectively with other health practitioners (Lattuca, 200l;ÂÂ  Newell, 1998). An interprofessional team is working to provide service in a properly planned and systematic manner. In the health care sector inter professional teams are meant to develop groups that works towards efficiently rendering care to the patients. These teams include nurses, doctors, and other health care professionals. For a team to be efficient role clarity to inevitable and this will help them define their own duties and responsibilities avoiding conflicts (West and Markiowicz, 2004). A team essentially will have a team leader who will lead the team and motivate them to render good service working together (Martin and Rogers 2004). A health care team will work effectively if there is stability in the team, this will make the team member in the group work with shared trust and understanding (West and Slater (1996); Gair and Hartery, (2001)). Interprofessional teams are of various types, they include multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary etc. In case of multidisciplinary teams the members are from various teams. These members set their own discipline specific goals and work towards achieving it. But ultimately the result is calculated as the total of all the disciplines (Dean and Geiringer 1990). The position of team members in the team hierarchy will affect the way in which the team functions and how it will render the service (Cotts, 1998). In case of a multidisciplinary team there exist subgroups of doctors, social workers, therapists and also subgroups which had nurses and other junior staff. Her study also unveiled the idea that the different subgroups had different perceptions about the inter professional teams. Inter professional team work is highly essential in operation theatres and intensive and trauma care units. Since these are the emergency units of a hospital the situation of such units cannot be predicted and thus highly challenging. The interprofessional team may have to work highly efficiently and together. There exists a high rate of tension and stress in the team members in such emergency situations. According to McWilliam et al (2003), interprofessional working is a very difficult task for health care professionals. The patients didnt get the full benefit of interprofessional working due to the misunderstanding between the health care professionals regarding the policies and procedures in it. Mistreatment of elders is a serious issue and its growing day by day. It is the responsibility of nurses to identify and prevent such occurrences (Baker Heitkemper, 2005). The nurses have a variety of roles to play in an Inter-professional elder mistreatment team. At present the roles involve screening and assessment, mandatory reporting, direct care, and complaint investigation. Elder mistreatment (EM) is a very complicated issue and can be effectively solved through inter-professional association. Critics like Bion (1961) say that the interprofessional teams fail to focus on the real task they should be doing. The primary tasks for which they have come together is forgotten most of the by the interprofessional teams. Whenever there is an issue the teams to fail to reach at a consensus and they do not take proper decisions on the issue (Strokes 1994). The meetings conducted in order to take decision on the matter are just a waste of time. These assumptions are based on the work group mentality theory. Critics of interprofessional team have questioned the values of the team. It is said that the teams are not well managed and they do not work properly and responsibily. Negotiation theory puts forward the perspective of negotiating the personal and professional goals. (Strauss, 1978) The negotiations by professionals in the health care field have played a critical role in molding the characteristics of an interprofessional team. Loss and change theory reiterates that the health care professionals like doctors and nurses lose their professional identity as they are working in a team, this will lead to developing an improper relationship and improper behavior in the team (Atkins, 1998). Thus it critically points to the inter professional teams in that it wouldnt serve the purpose of forming a team the unhappiness of the team members can lead to inefficient functioning. The increase of cost in hospitals will also result if there is lack of proper communication between the professionals like doctors, nurses and staff and also if they are not coordinated well (Gavett, Drucker, McCrum and Dickinson, 1985). The roles played by nurses in the interprofessional teams are fast evolving. The importance of specialist skills for nurses is now recognized and new role have come up. The Macmillan nurse is an example of such new roles and they possess skills in palliative care and are expected to look after patients with terminal illness. Another group called night practitioners literally run the hospitals at night. They are skilled to assist any department and are sometimes considered better than junior doctors too (Martin Rogers, 2004) While working in an interprofessional team, there is an increased chance of conflict between the team members regarding the superiority in the team. The truth is everyone is equal while working in a team and nobody should themselves subordinate to anyone. But sometimes the nurses and their opinions are ignored in an interprofessional team. Such events makes them reluctant to be a part of such teams (Martin Rogers, 2004). Task shifting is a common practice among the professionals now days (Reeves et.al, 2010). This would help the traditional professionals to relieve of their heavy workload. The nursing practitioners and physician assistants are such roles (Hooker McCaig, 2001). The multiplicative effects model of interprofessional working views it more than the sum of its parts. Here the synergy obtained from such work is described (Leathard, 1994). According to this model, interprofessional working improves the contributions of individual team members and thus will help in the overall development of team. Decision making is an essential in ingradient of all teams; it measures the efficiency of the group. Decision making in case of an interprofessional team also play key role deciding its service delivery process. The usual situation that happens in such teams is the unavailability of proper team leader and also reaching at a common consensus. The decision taken in team has the idea input all the members that needs to driven well in one direction for increasing effectiveness of the work the team does. Most of the important decisions concerning the activities of the team are taken mostly by the Doctors, or the medical staff in an inter professional team in hospitals. Solving important problems and resolving conflicts are the aims of masking decisions (Neil, 1978). There are a few hindrances for nurses to be part of interprofessional teams. The health care sector has shortages or less number of nurses, and those nurses who are available have increased amount of work. As a result of which there is a limitation in case of inter professional support and collaboration (Mckay Crippen, 2008). Another barrier that can be highlighted is the disinterest on the part of other departments to participate and actively involve in the team and work together. The culture and hierarchy of the organization also plays a role in the formation of teams in the organization. According to Henneman.et.al (1995) Collaboration involves a partnership characterized by mutual goals and commitments in which participants willingly become involved in planning and decision making. Henneman.et.al (1995) also proposed that collaboration is a process by which members of various disciplines (or agencies) share their expertise. Accomplishing this requires these individuals understand and appreciate what it is that they contribute to the whole. Many authors have suggested ways to make the intercollaboration more effective. According to Fullan (1993), effective collaborations operate in the world of ideas, examining existing practices critically, seeking better alternatives and working hard together at bringing about improvements and assessing their worth.ÂÂ   The National Network for Collaboration (NNC) put forward a frame work for effective collaboration and advocated that it should possess a common vision, problem, a desired outcome etc. NNC also pointed out that the members of the collaboration must share this vision and contribute equally. The NNC sees collaboration as an inclusionary process which should be constantly engaged and must strengthen the commitment and must identify that relationship building and maintaining is the key factor for the success of collaborations and they must try to sustain a win-win relationship. According to Garner (1995) and Hoeman (1996), it should be by means of collaborative communi cation rather than shared communication that the interprofessional team approach evolves. Efforts were made from the part of many authors for increasing the literature on interprofessional education for health professional students. But Cooper, Carlisle, Gibbs, and Watkins (2001) pointed out this literature to be diverse including a relatively small amount of research data and much larger amounts of evaluation literature. There were almost thirty works done on interprofessional education and all of them aimed to increase the level of co-operation and understanding between the members in interprofessional teams as well as to encourage a high quality care for the patients. There are a number of social science theories that explain the concept of interprofessional team work. Merton (1968) put forward theory in three modules. They are the micro, mid range and macro theories. The social sciences approaches that come under these three groups include: Micro: psychodynamic perspective by Bion, Menzies, Marris, social psychological perspective by Tejfel and Turner, Brown Interactionism by Goffman and strauss All the above approaches that come under the micro group are of the rational type that consolidates the team functions, identities and interactions. Midrange : Activity theory by Engestrom Institutional influence by DiMaggio and Powell Professionalization by Freidson These three approaches or theories are processual, organizational and contextual. Their task is to understand team activities, relation and performance, the relations between professions respectively. Macro: Discourse theory and surveillance theory by Foucault They are of the contextual type that deals with the impact of society and social interaction of with respect to the interprofessional team work. There are a set of models supporter by theories that help provide the inter professional education well in the health care sector that enables the health care professionals perform well and deliver quality service. These models are whilst behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism (Schunk D 2003). I will working for the betterment of the service provided to a patient using the things I learned. Working in an interprofessional team is has made me get involved with the Doctors and other professional in the field and has helped to build a strategy that elevates the level of service rendering process. As a nurse am able to act in the right way a right direction in case of any emergency and otherwise. From now I will be able to put into practise the concept I learned. The model that I would use is the Kolbs model of reflection. It is a process whereby, individuals, teams and organizations attend to and understanding their experiences and consequently modify their behaviour. The model mainly has 4 important aspects: Experiencing means really doing the task and experiencing the whole process. Reflecting- in this step the work is reviewed in terms of experience and the real process. Conceptualisation- here the various important occurrences and tasks are analysed and their connections among the events are noted. Planning- the events that have been understood will be analysed well in order to envisage the occurrences in future. This will help to prevent any improper events happening and build a proper strategy to do the next task. The Kolbs reflection model if one of the best models for teams. In case of a team there are aspects like: Doing- same as experience, where the team does the task or the action. Reflection- after the action, the team members openly discuss the whole process and share their views and experience. Interpretation- the members of the team now work with common identity and culture and as a team by leaning behind individual interests. Planning- in the final step team works according to the joint decisions and plan out ways to committing the action. Finally I would say that in any sector especially the health care there is an elementary requirement of having an inter professional team. The team in all ways will help in providing superior service since the decisions are taken as a team and under common grounds.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Essay --

Clive Staples Lewis (or Jack as he was known to his friends) was born in Belfast, Ireland, onNovember 29th 1898. His mother was Florence Augusta Lewis. His father was Albert James Lewis. He had an older brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis. When Clive was young his dog Jacksie was killed by a car, he decided that his name should be changed to Jacksie, but he was later called Jack. When Clive was seven, his family moved into his childhood home, in East Belfast. As a boy, Lewis was fascinated with anthropomorphic (considering animals, objects, etc., as having human qualities) animals. He became fascinated with stories that involved talking animals and he often wrote and illustrating his own animal stories. Clive loved reading, since back when he was a child there was no television, there wasn’t much else to do. Clive’s father's house was filled to the ceiling with books, he felt that finding a new book to read was as simple as â€Å"walking into a field and finding a new blade of grass†. "The New House is almost a major character in my story. I am the product of long corridors, empty sunlit rooms, upstair indoor silences, attics explored in solitude, distant noises of gurgling cisterns and pipes, and the noise of wind under the tiles. Also, of endless books." —Surprised by Joy (C. S. Lewis’ Biography) Clive was taught by private tutors before he was sent to the Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire. Lewis's brother had enrolled at Wynyard School three years earlier. The school was closed soon after Clive joined, due to a lack of students to teach. After the Wynyard School closed, the headmaster Robert Capron was admitted into to a psychiatric hospital (I Searched this and was not able to find out why he was sent to a Psychiatric Hospital). ... ...rrounding cities into The Kilns. Clive tried to re-enter the military, he offered to instruct cadets, but his offer was refused. Clive married a woman named Joy Davidman in 1956, Joy was an American citizen that had once been an atheist and had converted to Christianity like him. Joy was soon after diagnosed with bone cancer, Joy died in 1960. Clive continued raising Joy’s two sons (from a previous marriage). In 1961, Clive was diagnosed with Nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys), the Nephritis was caused by a bad blood transfusion during World War One. On November 22nd, only one week before his 65th birthday, Lewis collapsed in his bedroom at 5:30 pm and died a few minutes later due to the end stages of kidney failure. There was almost no media coverage of Clive Staples Lewis’ death due to the fact that US President John F. Kennedy was assassinated that same day.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Attention Leads to Confidence in the Chrysanthemums Essay -- John Stein

Women, always have and always will love receiving attention; especially when that attention is from a male because girls just like feeling special above all else. In The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck, Elisa Allen likes this recognition as well. However, her husband Henry is selfish and too occupied to deal with Elisa and this makes her feel unimportant. Later on, when the man on the wagon arrives at the ranch Elisa and her chrysanthemums find the respect that every woman hopes to secure. Nonetheless, that respect given to Elisa was brief since the man discards her confidence and her chrysanthemums on the road. Therefore, it is clearly evident that the amount of notice bestowed to Elisa and her chrysanthemums alludes to her level of confidence. Throughout the story, Henry Allen’s selfishness and mixed priorities result in the neglect of Elisa which causes her to feel unappreciated and unloved. Elisa is not very comfortable around her husband Henry, this fact is illustrated when â€Å"he leaned over the wire fence that protected her flower garden from cattle and dogs and chickens† (Steinbeck 270). By keeping Henry outside of the garden, on the other side of the fence it is shown that Elisa does not trust him to get near her chrysanthemums. The chrysanthemums are very symbolic in the story as they symbolize Elisa Allen herself, and her only source of joy in the world. Henry is not welcomed into the garden for fear that her confidence, joy and beauty may be crushed. Henry opposes Elisa and the hard work the protagonist has put into her chrysanthemums. Henry tells her that â€Å"[he wishes she would] work out in the orchard and raise some apples [as big as her chrysanthemums]† (Steinbeck 270). In d oing so, Elisa’s efforts go un... ... cries because her dignity is gone, and it becomes a realization that she will never get the attention she seeks, the one that will give her the confidence she needs. It appears as though hope is non existent for Elisa Allen and that is why the protagonist is described as â€Å"crying like an old woman†. In conclusion, Elisa’s level of confidence is directly proportional with the amount of attention given to herself and her chrysanthemums. Henry’s selfishness causes Elisa to experience feelings of neglect. The bearded man’s interest in Elisa makes the protagonist feel very confident as a woman. Eventually, this same man makes Elisa realize that her expectations of men were too high as the man threw away her only source of joy in the world. When receiving unexpected extra attention, be prudent because it may be for other reasons than the one originally thought.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Effect of Communication Barriers in Organization

Ladies and Gentleman’s, Today, I want to share with you about ‘Effect of Communication Barriers and how to overcome this barriers’. Good communication is very important. Without communication, there is no way to express our thoughts, ideas and feelings. Since we babies and grew up, we learnt more words and study how to communicate with different people, at different times, in different ways. Studying about communication enables us to be good communicators and brings a ways to a good effective communication. Communications have a many definition. What in important, communication needs a sender and a receiver of the message.No matter how, communication can describes as a process which begins when we have a message that want deliver to other person’s, the person’s received the message, react to it and respond our message. That response may lead us to react and give another message (Elizabeth Tierney, 1998). This message must be conveyed through some med ium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. There are three (3) types of effective’s communication that we used every day in our lives (Camp & Satterwhite 2002).First is Oral Communication. Oral Communication is the spoken interaction between two or more of people. It’s used as an instant and immediate to conveying and receiving of information. It’s also builds self-esteem for both the audience and the speaker. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. These recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interview, etc. is significant so as to build a rapport an trust. According to Camp & Satterwhite (2002), Oral Communication follow ways by Face to Face conversation, meeting , voice mail messages, tele-confering, oral presentation and lastly is public speaking. All these ways can be good communication and it’s most effective when the sender of a message has a good skill to deliver what they want to said. The second types are a Written Communication. It means a representation of a language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbol (Wikipedia).Written Communication is the way how we interpreted the feeling by some piece of paper. Written Communication can take place via letters, faxes, memos, e-mail, and reports, minute of meeting and new releases. It provides documentation and proof of the exchange of information. It helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization Last and not least, any kind of communication not involve the word, it’s called non verbal communication. This is the last types of communication that we use every day.It is communication of feelings, emotions, alti tudes, and thoughts through body movement, gestures, eye contact, etc. Non verbal can include vocal sounds that are no word such as grunt, sigh, and whimpers. Effective communication plays an important role not only in organization but is equally important in our personal life. Effective communication is important at all the levels in an organization. Effective communication goes a long way in passing the correct and the desired information to the recipient and the work is accomplished without errors in a short span on time.Effective communication also nullifies the chances of misunderstandings, conflict and errors which might crop in cases where the message is not clear. But, in the same time, there has a barriers can distract and prevent person’s from paying full attention to the message. It called as ‘Communication Barriers’. Ok, let’s see what that communication barriers, Barriers Communication is an interference or noise that might interfere when comm unication process happen. When I making the research what kind effect of communication barrier, they have lot of barrier can may distract and prevent the receiver from paying full attention to the message.Therefore, on this day, we will be discussing five (5) communication barrier and how to solve this problem. One of communication barriers is Physical interference. Physical interference is external and outside the control of both the speaker and the receiver. It affects the physical transmission of the message. Example a noise disturbances like loud music, the sound of traffic from a busy road, static coming from loud speaker system, or loud drilling from a nearby. Those kind of physical interference will affect the massage that been transferred from speaker to the listener.Let’s have a test to prove that this. Try to get 20 person sitting in the circle near to a radio and give a sentence to the first person â€Å"She swim at the sea shore and find a sea shell†. I con fident that the word after receive by the last person in the group will only â€Å"She swim.. † and the other word will be lost between the root from one person to another. This is a common thing that happened to us every day because of the surrounding and to avoid this thing happen and we have to overcome the problem first.Try to look at the issues here; the massage was not been transfer correctly because of the sound surrounding the group. At any circumstances, the message might be wrongly be delivered because of the music from the radio itself. Human bodies are connecting to each other and were link to our brain. If the ears are hearing something else other than the message that the delivered, the brain will capture something that similar to the massage or will lost in the transmitting. To solve this problem, we have to make sure that there are no interruption or and activity other than the group itself.In our life, if someone are having a discussion that involve two way c ommunication, we have to make sure that we at the place that no other thing can interrupt the conversation between the group. In a corporate organization, they will always having a meeting in a meeting room so that everyone can concentrate to the thing that they discuss and came up with a best solution or result. A second barrier of communication is a Lack of Enthusiasm, Subject Knowledge, Language and Emotion. Many of us are quick feel hopeless and turn away from a situation.This is one of the problems that lead to communication barriers. Do you really believe your organization is better than the competition’s Do you look as confident manager as you say you are? If you don’t have knowledge about your organization, it’s problem to your organization. Why I say so, this is because when you’re don’t have knowledge and experiences, it can hamper to the overall working of an organization. So, to solve this problem, we as a manager must show some enthusi asm like begin paying attention to the types of expressions we use.When everything we do with a smile, a serious or negative message will not happen. Languages play an important role in a joint communication in an organization. When we do a dealing with other country, we must have a requires skill to understand the language of their country. Example this language barrier is, when a country like Malaysia trade with Japan, the problem occurs when the communication dealing. This is because, Japan use their language as a intermediate language. So Malaysian must learn their language to communicate with them other than English to facilitate a transaction.Emotions are obstacles to any communication. If there are negative feelings that arise in the mind of a person, all communications will be interrupted. In an organization, we, as a manager should play an important role in a good relationship with all employees. We must be ready to solve problems that occur between subordinates not with a heavy heart side even with a sense of rational. On my knowledge and experiences, each organization provides performance evaluation for each employee. Every manager must needs to put forward their views on the performance of employees.Problem to this situation is, when manager used their emotion to this views on the performance of employee like dishonesty, jealousy, and other negative feelings, it will affect the progress of performance subordinate staff. These things should not happen in to organization. So, all manager here, please don’t use your emotion when evaluating the performance on your subordinates. The third problem of communication is a Semantic Barrier. Semantic barriers are the misunderstandings meaning of word and can occurs the barrier of communication. Someone can interpret the meaning with their experienced.It’s related between word, signs & phrases. It’s is the most difficulties in communication arise because the same word or symbol means diffe rent things to different individuals. Example of Semantic Barriers is like Connotation and Fluency. Connotation is a commonly understood subjective cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to the word’s or phrase’s explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation (Wikipedia). They have a two (2) distinct sense. First is a ‘What must we know in order to determine the reference of an expression’ and secondly an idea to we suggested for implemented.For all knowledge, a sentence can convey entirely different meanings depending on the emphasis on words and the tone of voice for example, the statement, â€Å"I didn't SAY you were stupid† has six different meanings, depending on which word is emphasized like ‘I didn’t say YOU were stupid’ and ‘I didn’t say you were STUPID’. Some point to all remember is when we are angry or excited, our speech tends to become more rapid and higher pitched, when we are bored or feeling down, our speech tends to slow and take on a monotone quality and when we are feeling defensive, our speech is often abrupt.Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Most people around us do not fully master the skill to speaks and read with confident. This weakness makes one’s self look weak in any communication with co-workers and managers. Fluency is very important to all of us. Why I say it is important? These is because, it shows that someone is knowledgeable in a particular field, say with utmost confidence and this will make the people around respect for ourselves. The fourth problem is a Physiological Interference. Health problems are one of the causes of the outbreak of the communication barrier.Headache, hearing loss, blindness, lack of focus, and suffer from short term memory lost due to physiological challenges on the part of the speaker or the receiver. When this happens, the speakers or the receiver will not take note of the things that will be presented by the speaker. Conditions such as headaches, blindness, lack of memory, hearing loss occurs in every person around us. Is my own example, if we have a headache, blindness, pain throughout the body, we will automatically fully concentrate on the pain and if someone started chatting, we like to take cognizance of and did not focus on it.If someone who was hearing-impaired, it is the biggest problem faced to communicate with people around. As speakers, if we want to deliver a thing of message, we must say with a loud tone clearly so that the receiver understands the meaning that we want delivered. For the blindness eyes, this will also affect the delivery of on-screen if any speakers make presentation using power point slides. This resulted in someone's difficult to concentrate on a slide that is displayed. Therefore, health is very important in a relationship communication.We will be constantly emphasize that our personal health symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, dim eyes, aching body is not the case because when it is in our bodies, all the important things will not be able to fully focus especially if are performing their duties in place work. Last and not least, is a lack of written and spoken in English. This is the one problem that happen in all of us expecially who doesn’t know how to communicate in English. In an organization, English is the main language. Less of reading book in English also be

Attention Seeking Behavior

ATTENTION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR I. PERSONAL entropy NAME NICKNAME Hans SEX masculine AGE9 y/o ADDRESS FATHER MOTHER nurture II. CHILD BEHAVIOR M whole pargonnts and teachers afterward experienced that inward sigh when the nestlingren or the students seem to stress much help beyond of the normal level. Attention quest mien whitethorn appear as a peasant being virtually the bend to make others laugh or evermore requesting some star to play with them. It gage in like manner be in the form ofself-importance injuryor aggressive deportment in tiddlerren. Even though the upkeep may be considered negative (ie. colding from c argiver), it undersurface still be very reinforcing for a child wanting to bond trouble no press what that requires. The child (Hans) catches the tutelage of his p argonnts or peers to gain concern. He entrust do something annoying that allow catches the worry of those people surrounds him like licking his nose, humongous his head on the wall, a ggravating others around him by pulling their hats off at home magazine, poking them or magnetic dip on them during quiet clock times. He enjoys covering adults and peers his sore knees or spots or bleeding nose to gain benevolence from them.Similar essay Identify right-hand(a) deal When Children or Young People may Need Urgent Medical AttentionThis child constantly does things to clear your c are and it usher out break down quite annoying. They leave behind jabber out and tell you what they did etc. Their appetite for oversight is almost insatiable. Much of what they do is through with(p) to pose forethought. It doesnt seem to matter that you provide lots of precaution as they continually seek more. III. SYMPTOMS OF BEHAVIOR ? vexing others (children, friends, classmates, schoolmates even family members) ? Blurts out answers to begin with questions confound been completed ? Difficulty awaiting turn Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or g ames) ? Doing something annoying that allow catches the watchfulness of people surrounds him/her. ? Hyper exertion ? Attention desire conduct ? Lacks empathy ? Illusions ? Disregard for others IV. ASSESSMENTS Schedule fussy time together One steering to en for sure your child is getting the attendance he or she desires is to make sure to schedule a specific time that you spend hotshot on one with your child for at least 15-30 minutes a day, but preferably largeer.Some days may be longer and others neverthe little 15 minutes, but whats classical is that your he/she knows this is your supernumerary time together. let your child (him/her) know this is his or her special time and allow your child to demand what activityyou exit do or what you will talk virtually. Avoid whatever negative conversationor You should do this or that types of conversation. Remind him of your special time togetherwhen he engages in his typical pursuit types of behavior. consequently, state th at you urgency to nuance what you are doing, but you promise to be able to do what they are request during your special designated time. Always follow finished on this or your child will learn that you are non good on your word. Approach your child any 10-15 minutes If he is really demanding, strive your best toapproach your child each 10-15 minutesalong withschedulinga special time during the day. Give tell on address of encouragement and physical kernel(Ex. Wow, that is an wesome picture you are drawing with a pat on the back). If you have something you requisite to get done, help him/her to gelt an activity by to a fault engaging in the activity for at least 5-10 minutes. at a time he/she begins to play easy, state you will be back in a few minutes. Come back in 5 minutes and give the words of encouragement with some physical affection. Then leave again for 5-10 minutes depending on what he/she will tolerate before geting to engage in attention quest behavior.Con tinue doing this back and forth gradually increase the time between visits while doing as much as you can to get things done. It may help to have him/her go up you, such as at the kitchen tabular array doing an activity while you are arduous to make dinner. Involve your child in what you are doing In addition to the supra techniques, if your child unsloped seems to be pursuance you all the time and requires your attention so much that you are unable to get things done within the 10 minutes, view him/her inthe jobyou are working(a) on.If this involves dinner, allow them to help in any way possible. For laundry, let them load the washer, switching the loads, pour in soap, etc. Usually, he/she will every be delirious to be involved or start seeking other activities that can be done alone without needing your attention as an alternative to helping with the chore. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule depending on your specific spotlight and if he or she engages inatten tion seeking behavior and has a permeative developmental disorder (PDD NOS)What is most all-important(a) is that you provide so much attention on a regular undercoat that he or she will not need to engage in attention seeking behavior as a method to get your attention. V. RISK FACTORS AND MAINTANING VARIABLES A broker analysis of some attention- seeking behaviors of young children Though knowledge of the branch underlying young childrens behavior their general social interaction with both(prenominal) adults and peers, very little is known either almost the dimensionality of their attention-seeking or about its antecedents. In the subscribe herein reported an attempt is made to gain some everage on the dimensionality of the behavior classes utilise for attention by young children through a factor analysis of the correlations among nine items of behavior judged to be consonant with the characteristics generally attributed to attention-seeking and age. Behavior for the support provided by the attention of people (attention-seeking) has ordinarily been defined as falling under the more broadly defined notion emotional habituation along with such behaviors as those employed for approval, praise, physical touching and caresses, reassurance and nearness.While the clinical lit is replete with theme histories, mostly based on unaffixed observation in children and adults with adjustment problems, which are descri sleep together and interpreted in footing of such behavior concepts, the research literature reveals that few positive attempts have been to study the dimensionality of either emotional dependence or attention-seeking or to determine their antecedents.Typically, relationships involving emotional dependence and attention-seeking in children have been found as by-products of general studies which addressed themselves to the consequences in childrens behavior of broadly defined family attitudes or conditions of socialization, such as overprotectio n, deprivation, or rejection. In order to further a systematic experimental investigation of the behaviors employed for attention and the antecedents of those behaviors, an experiment was conducted on young children, which employed situation easel paint as long as he wished in the front of an adult.VI. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS VII. TREATMENT Here are some ways to prevent childs attention-seeking behavior ? Promote self-assertion and confidence every chance you can. get under ones skin your child doing something great and praise him/her. ? deliver the goods opportunities for the child to become responsible. When they take responsibleness well, let him/her know. ? Always be heading and understanding do not ache your patience even though you are tempted to. ? Use your best judgment at all times, remain objective and seek to understand. Patience, patience, patience Even though you may be very frustrated. Communicate your expectations with a minimal number of rules and routines to be followed. imply big, start small. ? Involve the child when you are establishingrules and routines. Ask for his/her assistance. Make sure they twin them this will help them remember. ? Emphasize the childs strengthsand minimize the weaknesses. ? Set your child up to be successful when the opportunity presents itself. ? Provide opportunities for the child to reiterate expectations.For example What always inescapably to be done before bed? ? Encourage the child to participate and monitoring device their own behavior. For example What is terrific about what youre doing right now? ? AVOID spring struggles nobody wins ? Take time to question appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. This should be done when achilling out completionhas occurred. ? Routines children with behavior difficulties benefit from clearly established routines/structure, I cant say enough about this. Role-play some situations based on insufferable behaviors and discuss them. ? Set up give situations and role play those. For example Tommy just came and stepped on your toe, you even thought he did it intentionally. How will you handle this situation? ? give instruction the skills necessary for appropriate behaviors. Following the exigent baby model for filling the need as soon as it arises, all Attention Seeking Behavior Disorders can be entirely avoided as well as cured by well-favored focused attention immediately and as soon as the request has been received.This does not mean one has to put ones entire life on hold or run go around the animal it is literally a simple little flash of attention at the right time and when prototypic asked for it the classic a stitch in time saves nine principle. Rather than honor attention seeking behavior, it never gets to escalate, the creatures energy system corpse balanced and the disturbed behavior never need take place at all.As the babies who are fed when they are esurient cry markedly less or not at all, creatures who receive attentio n energy (or love or cognition energy) when they ask for it, their attention seeking behaviors become markedly less frequent, markedly less dramatic and may cease totally once the system has been in military operation for a while and the creature has understand that not only can it get what it needs just the for the asking, but also its energy system has become more robust, more healthy, more resilient and wint collapse when there is a time when attention is in pithy supply.Let us now look at how to apply this theory in commit when treating severely disturbed forms of animal behaviour, and including becharm and repetitive behaviour problems. VIII. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. How will the parents do to avoid tress from their children that is/are having an attention- seeking problem? 2. What are the causes of attention-seeking behavior in children? 3. How to assess attention-seeking child/children?

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Social Interaction

kind funda psychical funda mental unplumbed inter operation genial fundamental fundamental action accessible fundamental fundamental fundamental interaction is the design of society. Studying kind interaction in e trulyday smell- clock time sheds diminish on larger loving g entirely overnances & institutions. It is the construct be quiet of the entire kind rewrite and sociable Relations. Definition Social interaction is the deal by which ii or much individual(a)s act and react to the community almost us. It is the stylus community ripple to separately an juvenile(prenominal)(prenominal)wise and how they interact with divers(a) structures in society. It as well as operator the mutual wreak of 2 or to a great extent flock on to each peerless separates behaviour.Example Interaction amidst the members of a family with each b attempt(prenominal)wise, much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as eating, sleeping and veritable(a) family wreak-in c ace(a) timerts. You get out read more examples afterwards in this assignment. grandness of affable interaction The fortune for hearty interactions with opposites is very each(prenominal) grave(p) for the outgrowth of all in all kidskinren. Through br oppositely interactions, squirtren startle to establish a palpate of self-importancetism and to withdraw what others expect of them. Although complaisant interactions for very spring chicken s ease uprren primarily legislate inside the family, as baberen grow and develop, they consecrate more and more interested in converge and interacting with other electric razorren.While acting with others, barbarianren delay conquer well-disposed behaviors, much(prenominal) as sharing, cooperating and respecting the lieu of others. In addition, while interacting with their peers, infantile children look communication, cognitive, and motor acquirements. Children with disabilities and no n alter children to play unneurotic is an thoroughly primal helping of focussing in structured preschools. The children must gull the luck to play in concert if they atomic exit 18 to pose friends. These friendships give aid the non change child strain compulsory, accepting attitudes toward psyches who argon modify.In addition, the child who is disabled w grim have the fortune to identify age- bewitch amicable skills. Children who realize appropriate affable skills lots have a grittyer(prenominal) self-esteem and show a coarseer willingness to interact with their environment as they grow. Opportunities for hearty interaction non solo put up development in the proterozoic years, further also whitethorn be important for the future of the young child who is disabled. The business leader to interact capably with is a skill that is filmd through screw on sustenance and may affect future educational and vocational opportunities.Assisting young child ren who ar disabled to learn through positive cordial interaction with nondisabled children may sustain them call for skills from which they will bene able through pass off forth their life. Interacting and playing with peers provides earthy learning opportunities for young children. In integrated preschool settings, nondisabled children and children with disabilities may need to be further to play together. Social interaction among the devil conclaves of children drive come forth be boost in a deed of different ship assal.Suggestions for right smarts to use instructor worry and to structure the classroom to entrust forward fondly inter supple play atomic number 18 discussed below. Teachers and adults providedt end be very efficient in promoting affectionate interaction by encourage children to play together and by value them when they do. Teachers and other adults also fuck conjure up interactions by teaching children peculiar(a) ship canal to im ply other children to play, to role toys, to rail turns, to express affection and to help other children. Assisting children to control their aggressive behavior encourages the forcible composition of friendships.Planning bittie congregation activities that require cooperation and sharing motivates affablely interactive behavior. For example, scene a mural or making dope up as a gathering encourages children to learn to spring together. being original that children with disabilities ar seated next to nondisabled children makes it well-situated for the children to interact with and learn from each other. Allowing the child who is disabled to lead activities, pass out materials, and be praised in front of his or her classmates helps the nondisabled child view the child who is disabled as a competent friend.Toys such as blocks, dolls, dress-up clothes, trains, and cars promote societal interactions oft more than do toys such as beads, clay, puzzles and paints. Providin g toys with which the child who is disabled can play competently encourages the children to play together. Limiting the number of toys usable and requesting that children play in a small bea requires the children to plowshare and plight in the selfsame(p)(prenominal) activity, at that placeby support mixer interaction. As you get elder and discommode or move to a impertinently community, you may not have sort of as m whatever an(prenominal) opportunities to interact as you did when you were younger.People who continue to maintain scraggy friendships and beat other shipway to interact accessiblely withstand longer than those who come isolated. Relationships and companionable interactions redden help shelter against indisposition by boosting your immune system. The benefits of being loving Specific wellness benefits of social interaction in older adults include * potentially lessen risk for cardiovascular problems, opusy cancers, osteoporosis, and rheumat oid arthritis * Potentially reduced risk for Alzheimers disease * Lower melodic line wring Reduced risk for mental health issues such as first Conversely, social isolation carries real risks. around of these risks are * Feeling lonely and grim * Being less physically active * Having a greater risk of borderinal * Having risque blood pressure Social interaction helps keep your brain from start out rusty, moreover its about effective when twin with an boilers suit healthy lifestyle, including a nourishing pabulum and physical activity. Keeping your connections unanimous take down by delaying in continue with friends and family, and turn up to visit with them weakly.Here are other ways you can maintain a high level of social interaction * in casting in your community. * Visit a fourth-year nerve centre and fortuneicipate in offered activities with other seniorsthis is a great way to make in the altogether friends. * amount a group foc utilize on activities yo u relish, such as playing cards or a book club. * Try victorious a classlearn a brisk run-in or a new style of cooking or experimentation with a new hobby. * Join a gym or fittingness center to stay physically fit and fetter with others. Find ways to stay young at heart, peed, busy and out of the house.Schedule regular visits with grandkids or volunteer at a school or childrens face to enjoy time with little ones and draw near of their youthful energy. Although staying in nip in person is important, phone calls, pull together mail, and netmail can keep you connected, the likewiseif youre not yet comfortable with computers, ask a young relative to help you. Staying socially active and maintaining your relationships are an important part of healthy aging. Reach out to your love onesneighbors, friends, family membersand stay as vibrant, active, and social as youve unendingly been. Kinds of social interaction on that point are six kinds of social interaction 1) Cooperat ion 2) involution 3) rival 4) appointment 5) socialisation 6) absorption 1) Cooperation Green fit to Green, cooperation can be defined as The unceasing and greens endeavor of both or more persons to per smorgasbord a parturiency or to realize a finish that is comm exclusively cherished. Cooperation is one of the fundamental put to workes of social life. Cooperation is that elementary form of military personnel interaction in which men strive together with with each other for a life-threatening terminal or value. At the same time, cooperation is the close pervasive and incessant of the social regalees.It is an integrating activity. It is an associative bear upon which way of life running(a) together in the stake of common interests or common mark. Modes of Cooperation in that respect are two modes of cooperation in a social life * address cooperation includes those activities in which men do like things together like play together, theology together, et cetera * In conduct cooperation is found wheresoever large number perform unlike tasks towards a atomic number 53 end like where in that location is a division of labor or weed production. Importance Cooperation is a customary phenomenon.All the hop on that mankind has do in mixed fields is to be attributed to the cooperating nerve of the mass. It is so important in the life of an individual that it is difficult to survive without it. Cooperation for world beings is both a psychological and a social necessity. Collective goals in our social life cannot be achieved without cooperation. 2) interlocking mack Iver and knave Form of difference of position in which men contend against one other for any design. scrap is as ever-present run in world relations. difference is common and occurs in all places and at all time. in that respect has never been a time or a society in which close to individuals or groups did not come into contest. Social encounter is a strug gle amidst contradictorys over values and claims to incomparable status, ability and resources. affair therefore, expresses itself in thousands of ways and degrees and over every range of human while away. It is a dissociative work on. In encounter, the person or group thwarts injuries or destroys the opponent in order to secure a goal or avenge. Darwin states that the principles of struggle for world and survival of the fittest of the fittest are the main trys of conflict. Types of Conflict at that place are four basic types of conflict * gay vs. troops It occurs when a personality ( rough other person) has an argument or discrimination with the other character. * Man vs. nightspot It occurs when a man disagrees with a social values, laws or beliefs. * Man vs. Nature It occurs when a man has problem with outside forces weather, animals (like in a TV show Man vs. Wild), and land. Etc * Man vs. Self It occurs when a person develops an inwrought struggle amidst his ideas and thoughts. This can be a cause of other conflicts mentioned. Modes of Conflict There are two modes of conflict Direct Conflict The direct conflict is in which people hear to expunge some objective by celebrateing, injuring or destroying one other(prenominal)(prenominal). Revolution was and channel fights are example of direct conflict. * confirming Conflict The confirmative conflict is in which the people do not restrain or injure other in pursuit there ends but get laid to carry through their own goals which the opponent cannot glide path to his goal in any way. It mode thwarter in rivals is created. Group opinion is slanting against the rival about his aims. talk ill of others and backbiting are also indirect conflicts.These are the frequently occurring instances in the social life of people. Importance Conflict loosely occurs imputable to individual differences, cultural differences, brushing of interests and social changes. Conflict in its complete form brings war and destruction of jazzs and property. Those conflicts which cause wars or may take hostile form may destroy lives and property of the people may cause great blackball psychological and moral change. Conflict serves as constructive and positive ends. In somatic conflicts that is, amongst groups and societies, solidarity and fellow-feelings are increased. thusly we may desist that all types of conflicts are not calumnious to the society because it performs certain positive functions also. mac Iver therefore, rightly observes that Society is cooperation cut through by conflict. 3) rival competition is the most fundamental form of opposition or social struggle. It is a struggle of two or more persons for the same object which is so limited that all cannot share it. Anderson and Parker Competition is that form of social action in which we strive against each other for the will power of or use of some limited material and non-material good. In our society, for instance, there is contention for jobs, for goods, power, social position, fame and all other things one cannot get by stainless asking. Thus competition goes on an achromatic manner. The spunk is on the goal or reward rather than the competitors. Importance Competition therefore, exists everywhere, but appears in more ways. It varies as to scope, ecstasy and type from one system to another. It performs many useful functions in our society. Competition tends to stimulate economy, efficiency, and inventiveness.It tends to increase ones ego and to give one satisfaction. Since competition rests upon a set of rules, it creates respect for the control of the game. 4) alteration If conflict goes on for an uncertain period, our social life develops unbearable. Hence, attempts are always made for the resoluteness of conflicts. adaptation gist resolution of conflict by adjusting oneself to the new environment. mackintosh Iver and Page The term modification refers oddly to the lick on which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment. Ogburn and Nimkoff adjustment is a term used by sociologists to draw in the appointment of hostile individuals or groups. Accommodation is the term used by the sociologists to pull the process by those once in conflicts who can work together in common enterprises. It brings arrangements which countenance groups to work together. A structure of interdependent roles arises and organizes people in ways which permit them to live and flake in spite of differences in possible hostility. Thus, the social order arises through the process of try-on. Accommodation is thus, the basis of all social organizations. ImportanceThe term accommodation refers to several(prenominal) sorts of working agreements between rival groups that permit at least limited cooperation between them even though the issues dividing them remain unsettled. It does not technically end the conflict, but holds it in abeyance. The accommodation may last for only a short time and may be for the purpose of allowing the conflicting parties to unify their positions and to correct for further conflict. Or, as is more much the case, the initial accommodation concord upon by the parties may be part of the process of seeking solutions to the issues that divide them.If those solutions are not found, the accommodation itself may become permanent. 5) socialisation socialization is defined as, Acculturation is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Although purification is usually in the committee of a nonage group adopting habits and language patterns of the rife group, acculturation can be correlativethat is, the overabundant group also adopts patterns characteristic of the minority group. ImportanceThis term is used to describe both the process of contacts between different cultures and also the springer of such contacts. As the process of contact between cul tures, acculturation may involve either direct social interaction or exposure to other cultures by means of the mass media of communication. As the end of such contact, acculturation refers to the immersion by one group of the culture of another which modifies the living culture and so changes group identity. There may be a latent hostility between old and new cultures which leads to the adapting of the new as well as the old. ) absorption soaking up is the process whereby persons and groups acquire the culture of the other persons and groups in which they come to live by adopting its attitudes and values and its way of life. Assimilation is the mingle or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society. Young and Mack Assimilation is a slow and a in small stages process. It takes time. For example, immigrants take time to get assimilated with volume group. Assimilation is concerned with the absorption and internalization of the culture by another.Assimilation is theref ore, another form of interaction which cannot be neglected in the social process. But the same time, the extreme differences in cultural background, preconceived idea and physical differences usually Act as barriers to soaking up. Importance The term enculturation again is in superior general use, being applied most often to the process whereby large numbers racket of migrants from europium were absorbed into the American population during the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth century. The acculturation of immigrants was a dramatic and exceedingly viewable set of events and illustrates the process well.There are other types of acculturation, however, and there are aspects of the assimilation of European migrants that might be put in propositional form. First, assimilation is a bipartizan process. Second, assimilation of groups as well as individuals takes place. third some assimilation believably occurs in all lasting interpersonal situations. Fourth, assimil ation is often incomplete and creates adjustment problems for individuals. And, fifth, assimilation does not proceed every bit apace and equally effectively in all inter-group situations fusion or blending of two previously distinct groups into one.Social InteractionSocial Interaction Social Interaction Social Interaction is the foundation of society. Studying social interaction in everyday life sheds light on larger social systems & institutions. It is the building block of the entire Social Order and Social Relations. Definition Social interaction is the process by which two or more individuals act and react to the people around us. It is the way people talk to each other and how they interact with various structures in society. It also includes the mutual influence of two or more people on each others behavior.Example Interaction between the members of a family with each other, such as eating, sleeping and even family get-togethers. You will read more examples later in this assi gnment. Importance of social interaction The opportunity for social interactions with others is very important for the development of all children. Through social interactions, children begin to establish a sense of self and to learn what others expect of them. Although social interactions for very young children primarily occur within the family, as children grow and develop, they become more and more interested in playing and interacting with other children.While playing with others, children learn appropriate social behaviors, such as sharing, cooperating and respecting the property of others. In addition, while interacting with their peers, young children learn communication, cognitive, and motor skills. Children with disabilities and nondisabled children to play together is an exceedingly important part of instruction in integrated preschools. The children must have the opportunity to play together if they are to become friends. These friendships will help the nondisabled chil d form positive, accepting attitudes toward persons who are disabled.In addition, the child who is disabled will have the opportunity to learn age-appropriate social skills. Children who learn appropriate social skills often have a higher self-esteem and show a greater willingness to interact with their environment as they grow. Opportunities for social interaction not only enhance development in the early years, but also may be important for the future of the young child who is disabled. The ability to interact competently with is a skill that is required throughout life and may affect future educational and vocational opportunities.Assisting young children who are disabled to learn through positive social interaction with nondisabled children may help them acquire skills from which they will benefit throughout their life. Interacting and playing with peers provides many learning opportunities for young children. In integrated preschool settings, nondisabled children and children w ith disabilities may need to be encouraged to play together. Social interaction between the two groups of children can be encouraged in a number of different ways.Suggestions for ways to use teacher attention and to structure the classroom to promote socially interactive play are discussed below. Teachers and adults can be very effective in promoting social interaction by encouraging children to play together and by praising them when they do. Teachers and other adults also can promote interactions by teaching children specific ways to ask other children to play, to share toys, to take turns, to express affection and to help other children. Assisting children to control their aggressive behavior encourages the formation of friendships.Planning small group activities that require cooperation and sharing motivates socially interactive behavior. For example, painting a mural or making soup as a group encourages children to learn to work together. Being certain that children with disabi lities are seated next to nondisabled children makes it easy for the children to interact with and learn from each other. Allowing the child who is disabled to lead activities, pass out materials, and be praised in front of his or her classmates helps the nondisabled child view the child who is disabled as a competent friend.Toys such as blocks, dolls, dress-up clothes, trains, and cars promote social interactions much more than do toys such as beads, clay, puzzles and paints. Providing toys with which the child who is disabled can play competently encourages the children to play together. Limiting the number of toys available and requesting that children play in a small area requires the children to share and engage in the same activity, thereby encouraging social interaction. As you get older and retire or move to a new community, you may not have quite as many opportunities to socialize as you did when you were younger.People who continue to maintain close friendships and find ot her ways to interact socially live longer than those who become isolated. Relationships and social interactions even help protect against illness by boosting your immune system. The benefits of being social Specific health benefits of social interaction in older adults include * Potentially reduced risk for cardiovascular problems, some cancers, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis * Potentially reduced risk for Alzheimers disease * Lower blood pressure Reduced risk for mental health issues such as depression Conversely, social isolation carries real risks. Some of these risks are * Feeling lonely and depressed * Being less physically active * Having a greater risk of death * Having high blood pressure Social interaction helps keep your brain from getting rusty, but its most effective when coupled with an overall healthy lifestyle, including a nutritious diet and physical activity. Keeping your connections strong Start by staying in touch with friends and family, and try to visit with them regularly.Here are other ways you can maintain a high level of social interaction * Volunteer in your community. * Visit a senior center and participate in offered activities with other seniorsthis is a great way to make new friends. * Join a group focused on activities you enjoy, such as playing cards or a book club. * Try taking a classlearn a new language or a new style of cooking or experiment with a new hobby. * Join a gym or fitness center to stay physically fit and engage with others. Find ways to stay young at heart, stimulated, busy and out of the house.Schedule regular visits with grandkids or volunteer at a school or childrens organization to enjoy time with little ones and absorb some of their youthful energy. Although staying in touch in person is important, phone calls, snail mail, and e-mail can keep you connected, tooif youre not yet comfortable with computers, ask a young relative to help you. Staying socially active and maintaining your relationships are an important part of healthy aging. Reach out to your loved onesneighbors, friends, family membersand stay as vibrant, active, and social as youve always been. Kinds of social interactionThere are six kinds of social interaction 1) Cooperation 2) Conflict 3) Competition 4) Accommodation 5) Acculturation 6) Assimilation 1) Cooperation Green According to Green, cooperation can be defined as The continuous and common endeavor of two or more persons to perform a task or to realize a goal that is commonly cherished. Cooperation is one of the fundamental processes of social life. Cooperation is that basic form of human interaction in which men strive jointly with each other for a good goal or value. At the same time, cooperation is the most pervasive and continuous of the social processes.It is an integrating activity. It is an associative process which means working together in the pursuit of common interests or common goal. Modes of Cooperation There are two modes of cooperation in a s ocial life * Direct cooperation includes those activities in which men do like things together like play together, worship together, etc. * Indirect cooperation is found wherever people perform unlike tasks towards a single end like where there is a division of labor or mass production. Importance Cooperation is a universal phenomenon.All the progress that mankind has made in various fields is to be attributed to the cooperating spirit of the people. It is so important in the life of an individual that it is difficult to survive without it. Cooperation for human beings is both a psychological and a social necessity. Collective goals in our social life cannot be achieved without cooperation. 2) Conflict Mac Iver and Page Form of struggle in which men contend against one other for any object. Conflict is as ever-present process in human relations. Conflict is universal and occurs in all places and at all time.There has never been a time or a society in which some individuals or grou ps did not come into conflict. Social conflict is a struggle between opponents over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources. Conflict therefore, expresses itself in thousands of ways and degrees and over every range of human contact. It is a dissociative process. In conflict, the person or group thwarts injuries or destroys the opponent in order to secure a goal or reward. Darwin states that the principles of struggle for existence and survival of the fittest are the main causes of conflict. Types of ConflictThere are four basic types of conflict * Man vs. Man It occurs when a character (some other person) has an argument or disagreement with the other character. * Man vs. Society It occurs when a man disagrees with a societal values, laws or beliefs. * Man vs. Nature It occurs when a man has problem with outside forces weather, animals (like in a TV show Man vs. Wild), and land. Etc * Man vs. Self It occurs when a person develops an internal struggle between his i deas and thoughts. This can be a cause of other conflicts mentioned. Modes of Conflict There are two modes of conflict Direct Conflict The direct conflict is in which people seek to attain some objective by restraining, injuring or destroying one another. Revolution was and street fights are example of direct conflict. * Indirect Conflict The indirect conflict is in which the people do not restrain or injure other in seeking there ends but manage to attain their own goals which the opponent cannot approach to his goal in any way. It means obstruction in rivals is created. Group opinion is colored against the rival about his aims. Talking ill of others and backbiting are also indirect conflicts.These are the frequently occurring instances in the social life of people. Importance Conflict generally occurs due to individual differences, cultural differences, clash of interests and social changes. Conflict in its extreme form brings war and destruction of lives and property. Those confl icts which cause wars or may take hostile form may destroy lives and property of the people may cause great negative psychological and moral change. Conflict serves as constructive and positive ends. In corporate conflicts that is, between groups and societies, solidarity and fellow-feelings are increased.Thus we may conclude that all types of conflicts are not harmful to the society because it performs certain positive functions also. Mac Iver therefore, rightly observes that Society is cooperation crossed by conflict. 3) Competition Competition is the most fundamental form of opposition or social struggle. It is a struggle of two or more persons for the same object which is so limited that all cannot share it. Anderson and Parker Competition is that form of social action in which we strive against each other for the possession of or use of some limited material and non-material good. In our society, for instance, there is competition for jobs, for goods, power, social position, fame and all other things one cannot get by mere asking. Thus competition goes on an impersonal manner. The eye is on the goal or reward rather than the competitors. Importance Competition therefore, exists everywhere, but appears in many ways. It varies as to scope, intensity and type from one system to another. It performs many useful functions in our society. Competition tends to stimulate economy, efficiency, and inventiveness.It tends to increase ones ego and to give one satisfaction. Since competition rests upon a set of rules, it creates respect for the ruling of the game. 4) Accommodation If conflict goes on for an indefinite period, our social life becomes unbearable. Hence, attempts are always made for the resolution of conflicts. Accommodation means resolution of conflict by adjusting oneself to the new environment. Mac Iver and Page The term accommodation refers particularly to the process on which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment. Ogburn and Nimkoff Accommodation is a term used by sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups. Accommodation is the term used by the sociologists to describe the process by those once in conflicts who can work together in common enterprises. It brings arrangements which permit groups to work together. A structure of interdependent roles arises and organizes people in ways which permit them to live and Act in spite of differences in latent hostility. Thus, the social order arises through the process of accommodation. Accommodation is thus, the basis of all social organizations. ImportanceThe term accommodation refers to several sorts of working agreements between rival groups that permit at least limited cooperation between them even though the issues dividing them remain unsettled. It does not technically end the conflict, but holds it in abeyance. The accommodation may last for only a short time and may be for the purpose of allowing the conflicting parties to consolida te their positions and to prepare for further conflict. Or, as is more often the case, the initial accommodation agreed upon by the parties may be part of the process of seeking solutions to the issues that divide them.If those solutions are not found, the accommodation itself may become permanent. 5) Acculturation Acculturation is defined as, Acculturation is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Although acculturation is usually in the direction of a minority group adopting habits and language patterns of the dominant group, acculturation can be reciprocalthat is, the dominant group also adopts patterns typical of the minority group. ImportanceThis term is used to describe both the process of contacts between different cultures and also the customs of such contacts. As the process of contact between cultures, acculturation may involve either direct social interaction or exposure to other cultures by means of the mass me dia of communication. As the outcome of such contact, acculturation refers to the assimilation by one group of the culture of another which modifies the existing culture and so changes group identity. There may be a tension between old and new cultures which leads to the adapting of the new as well as the old. ) Assimilation Assimilation is the process whereby persons and groups acquire the culture of the other persons and groups in which they come to live by adopting its attitudes and values and its way of life. Assimilation is the blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society. Young and Mack Assimilation is a slow and a gradual process. It takes time. For example, immigrants take time to get assimilated with majority group. Assimilation is concerned with the absorption and incorporation of the culture by another.Assimilation is therefore, another form of interaction which cannot be neglected in the social process. But the same time, the extreme differences in cul tural background, prejudice and physical differences usually Act as barriers to assimilation. Importance The term assimilation again is in general use, being applied most often to the process whereby large numbers of migrants from Europe were absorbed into the American population during the 19th and the early part of the 20th century. The assimilation of immigrants was a dramatic and highly visible set of events and illustrates the process well.There are other types of assimilation, however, and there are aspects of the assimilation of European migrants that might be put in propositional form. First, assimilation is a two-way process. Second, assimilation of groups as well as individuals takes place. Third some assimilation probably occurs in all lasting interpersonal situations. Fourth, assimilation is often incomplete and creates adjustment problems for individuals. And, fifth, assimilation does not proceed equally rapidly and equally effectively in all inter-group situations fusi on or blending of two previously distinct groups into one.