Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Non-standard English: Usage and attitudes

Non-standard incline Usage and attitudesIntroductionSpoken language is a powerful gracious beingsner of communication that conveys more than intended referential in formattingion. Depending on the listeners attitude, a loudspeaker systems express or dialect may imply a number of characteristics such as fond sectionalization and professionalism. Examples of non-standard lingual characters be discussed under delegate 1 followed by summaries of two studies under Task 2, which focus on attitudes towards West Indian dialect (Edwards, 1986) and the cockney try (Giles Sassoon, 1982).Task 1 Thats the girl he gave the bracelet to.This sentence contains a grammatical, non-standard linguistic feature beca delectation it ends with the preposition to. In Standard slope, a preposition usually proceeds a noun, therefrom the sentence should pack Thats the girl to whom he gave the bracelet. However, there are cases where sentences threatening unnatural if they are arranged in a way that avoids a final proposition. This is usually seen in conversational English, for example in coitus clauses and questions which feature phrasal verbs, passive constructions, and short sentences which feature an infinitive or vocal noun.Nonetheless, in formal writing, it is considered better practice to avoid placing a preposition at the end of a sentence where it may seem stranded. (Preposition, 2008)Buffy the vampire slayer is dead cool.This sentence contains a lexical, non-standard linguistic feature because dead functions as an adverb of degree, such as real the sentence should read, Buffy the vampire slayer is very cool, or of a similar effect. Dead typically functions as an adjective, centre no longer alive, and is used in contexts such as a dead bodyor a dead issue. It has therefore undergone semantic change, and its meaning has been broadened. (Dead, 2017)My over-the-hill man gave me a set of wheels for my birthday.This sentence contains lexical, non-standard lin guistic features because slang is used. My grey-haired man is a colloquial, informal noun phrase meaning ones father or a womans husband or boyfriend set of wheels is also a colloquial, informal noun phrase meaning a motor vehicle, as contend to a literal set of wheels. According to Standard English, the sentence should read My father gave me a motor vehicle for my birthday. The phrases have thus undergone semantic change. (Old man, 2017)The guy that whole kit in the bar is really nice.This sentence contains a lexical, non-standard linguistic feature due to the use of the informal noun, guy, meaning man (Guy, 2017). There is also a grammatical, nonstandard linguistic feature because, in Standard English, that should non be used as a comparative pronoun when the antecedent is personal. A human antecedent is typically proceeded by who in a defining clause. An inanimate antecedent or a human but representative of a class is followed by that for example, the chair that collapsed / the cross that laughed. In Standard English, the sentence should therefore read The man who works in the bar is really nice. (That, 1998)Who did you see?This sentence contains a grammatical, non-standard linguistic feature because who is used in place of whom. In Standard English, who is a relative pronoun or an interrogative when it refers to the subject (who is there?). Whom is the objective form, therefore the sentence should read Whom did you see?However, the use of whom is declining and is often replaced by who in modern usage. (Who and whom, 2017)Task 2 A reckon of West Indian Patois, conducted by Viv Edwards (1986)A study of 45 British-born black adolescents in a West Midlands community (Edwards 1997 409) reveals the attitudes of teachers and pupils towards West Indian Patois.Attitudes to Patois in the educational world are generally negative. The Association of Teachers of English to Pupils from Overseas (ATEPO 1970) portray West Indian language as babyish and lacking s trait-laced grammar (Edwards 1986 25) the National Association of School Masters (1969) refer to West Indian language as a plantation English which is tenderly unacceptable and inadequate for communication (Edwards 1986 25).These negative attitudes reflect some of the findings of Edwards (1986) West Midlands study. Conducted in Dudley, the study consisted of a judgement sample and comprised of 3 measures which were applied to the public lecture of 21 women and 24 men, aged between 16 and 23 oftenness of Patois features, competence in Patois, and patterns of Patois usage. (Edwards 1997 410). The studys findings are presented in 3 sets of interactions, as summarised below Classroom Interaction, Pupil-Pupil Interactions and Pupil-Teacher Interactions.Classroom InteractionThe stereotype that Patois speakers are limited to monolingualism was opposed by recordings of dour pupils using antithetical language patterns in the classroom.Pupil-Pupil InteractionsContrary to the beliefs of the whiteness community, menacing pupils, who reduced the oftenness and range of their nonstandard linguistic features, made a marked preference not to speak Standard English (despite their competence to speak two varieties).The use of Patois in the classroom was rare but just about all black pupils could understand it, and used features in at to the lowest degree some situations. Within Black peer groups, it marked solidarity and toleration in mixed-raced groups, it functioned to exclude the White outsider.However, a few White pupils sought acceptance from Black friendship groups by using Patois, but their degree of competence varied. Some Black pupils responded with amusement and approval most responded negatively to the White community for using a variety of English that was distinctively Black.Pupil-Teacher InteractionsBlack pupils used Patois to exclude their White teacher as convey of defiance. Teachers then felt threatened when Patois was used in a confrontational wa y. Teachers who responded punitively elicited negative attitudes towards Patois. Other reports of teacher responses include learning nonstandard linguistic features in an attempt to understand Black dialect.Edwards (1997) concludes that teachers punitive responses and the use of Patois to exclude the White community are a reflection of the issues caused by negative attitudes towards nonstandard varieties of English.A study of Cockney, conducted by Howard Giles and Caroline Sassoon (1982)A study of a speakers accent and social class reveals the attitudes of 120 undergraduate listeners towards Cockney, in comparison to Received orthoepy (RP).Based, on Ryan Sebastians (1980) study of the attitudes of middle class listeners towards Mexican-American in the USA, both studies were redolent(p) of Lamberts (1967) matched-guise test and consisted of a tape-recording, followed by a questionnaire. Ryan Sebastian (1980) found that by minus the listeners assumption of the accented speakers so cial class, their evaluations improved. Giles Sassoon (1982) referred to this as the Ryan Sebastian effect, which they later opposed in their hypothesis consciousness of a Cockney speakers social class would not attenuate significantly the unfavourable experimental condition associations commonly levied against nonstandard vocabulary (pp. 306).The participants of the study (Ss) consisted of 63 males and 57 females, aged between 18 and 23. Ss perceive 1 combination of a male students voice and social class information who was recorded reading two stimulus passages using RP and Cockney accents. The legitimacy of his bidialectal skills was assessed in a pilot study by 24 undergraduates.The studys dependant measures involved 5 small questionnaires, each consisting of 7-point rating scales and instructions. The questionnaires were measures of Ss detection of the speakers social class, accent and formality of speech social evaluation scales base on the speakers intelligence, succe ss, friendliness and trustworthiness belief similarity items which measured the finale that Ss agreed with the speaker on social issues such as the legislation of marihuana social distance items which measured how close a relationship Ss were instinctive to have with the speaker and social role items which determined Ss willingness to work with the speaker as get over to, superior over, or colleague with them (pp. 307).Ss were recorded in groups of up to 6 other undergraduates they were handed the 5 questionnaires in the format of a response booklet with the social class information confront upwards. Once they had completed the task, they were debriefed and engaged in discussion.The results proved Giles Sassoons hypothesis the awareness of the speakers middle class background did not prevent Ss from perceiving him as a low status evaluation when he used Cockney. Accent influenced the ratings on only 1 of 4 social issues listeners shared more beliefs on the legislation of mariju ana with the speaker when he used an RP accent accent had no effect on social distance items but the findings from the social role items showed that Ss preferred an RP speaker as their superordinate, and as a subordinate too (pp. 311).Giles Sassoon conclude that the awareness of a Cockney speakers middle class background does not prevent the stereotyped negative attitudes towards low status ratings (pp. 311).Conclusion The nonstandard linguistic features in Task 1 and the studies summarised in Task 2 portray several varieties of English. The mixed attitudes towards the widespread use of nonstandard linguistic features are a clear reflection of an dynamic language.Word count 1500 wordsReferencesAllen, R. Fowler, H. (2008). Preposition. Pocket Fowlers Modern English Usage.Oxford Oxford University Press. Retrieved fromhttp//www.oxfordreference.com.idpproxy.reading.ac.uk/ trance/10.1093/acref/9780199232581.001.0001/acref-9780199232581-e-3016?rskey=4f5JCxresult=1Allen, R. Fowler, H. (2008). Who and whom. Pocket Fowlers Modern English Usage.Oxford Oxford University Press. Retrieved fromhttp//www.oxfordreference.com.idpproxy.reading.ac.uk/view/10.1093/acref/9780199232581.001.0001/acref-9780199232581-e-4155?rskey=ducoglresult=2Dead. (2017). Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford. Retrieved fromhttps//en.oxforddictionaries.com/ commentary/deadEdwards, V. (1986). Language In A Black Community. Clevedon trilingual MattersEdwards, V. (2007). Patois and the Politics of Protest Black English in British Classrooms.In Coupland, N. Jaworski, A. Sociolinguistics A Reader and Coursebook. (408-415). London MacMillan Press.Fowler, H. Burchfield, R. (1998). That. The new Fowlers Modern English usage.Oxford Oxford University Press.Giles, H. Sassoon, C. (1983). The effect of speakers accent, social class background andmessage style on British listeners social judgements. Language Communication, 3(3), 305-313.http//dx.doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(83)90006-xGuy. (2017). Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford. Retrieved fromhttps//en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/guyLambert, W. E. (1967). A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues. 23, 91-109.Old man. (2017). Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford. Retrieved fromhttps//en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/old_man

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