Sunday, April 21, 2019

This is not a paper just a MIDTERM question Essay - 2

This is not a paper just a MIDTERM question - Essay ExampleHowever, it is cumbersome to prep atomic number 18, offers little development to management, and usually creates parallel accounting systems. It also does not indicate levels of efficiency or address value.Generally, budgeted expenditures are based on a standard cost of inputs multiplied by the number of units of an activity to be provided in that period. It refers to the process of linking costs to activities, then identifying specific outputs to be produced by services or activities. consequently setting targets or goals and afterwards preparing budget based on these exploit goals set. The new approach to performance budgeting seeks to concentrate on the outcomes rather than the output. This approach has the advantage of offering a means of estimating future expenditures and measuring stick of activities efficiency. On the other hand, its drawback is that in that respect is a need to distinguish between the fixed and v ariable costs. Furthermore, it has no benefit in public accounting, as efficiency is not the only measure required.Program budgeting refers to a variety of different budgeting systems that base expenditures primarily on programs of work and secondarily on objects. It involves organization of the pipeline operations into programs with specific goals and missions. After identifying the goals, sub goals and objectives and their input and output are outlined, as budgets are wide-awake along these programs. They facilitate choice of alternative strategies, evaluation of goals and finally it takes budgeting beyond efficiency compared to performance budgeting approach. However, there is no single methodology to single out alternatives available. In addition, it places heavy demands on officials to achieve their stated goals.Zero-based budgeting operates by justifying budget requests probably of each department or functional unit of operation both budgeting cycle, regardless of prior

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