Thursday, April 4, 2019

Causes of Epilepsy and Seizures

Causes of Epilepsy and SeizuresContents (Jump to)Introduction to EpilepsySeizuresCauses of EpilepsyConclusion roles rulesAppendixIntroduction to EpilepsyEpilepsy is the oldest know brain disorder dating back as early as 2080BC (Cascino et al., 1995). It was first set as a disease by Dr Jon Hughlings Jackson in 1880 who defined it as An occasional, sudden, massive, rapid and local bring in or the grey matter (Scott, 1978). This definition has been confirmed 50 years later by Electroencephalography. A more recent definition was devised stating Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which the nerve cell bodily process in your brain is disturbed, causing a ecstasy during which you experience ab principle behaviour, symptoms and sensations, including loss of consciousness.(Scambler, 1989)Worldwide, it is estimated that there argon 65 million volume living with epilepsy with almost 80% of the cases reported occurring in the organiseing cosmos (Ngugi et al., 2010). Within the UK, the prevalence is between 1 in 40/70,000 which equates to 3% of the population will develop epilepsy in their life clock clock.Recurrent captures atomic number 18 the hallmark trait of an epileptic. If an individual has one seizure early in their lives then none thereafter, they are said to have had an epileptic seizure but do non suffer from epilepsy. (Dun green goddess et al., 2006)SeizuresA seizure is abnormally excessive neuronic activity localised to a bad-tempered area of the brain cognise as the cerebral cortex causing a disruption to normal brain function. These cortical discharges will transmit to the muscles causing convulsions or super Cly referred to as a fit.Figure 1 Generalised seizure with neuronal activation in both hemisphereClassifying seizures is done ground on the site of the brain which the seizure begins. This will be either Partial where the onset of seizure is localised to one part of the hemisphere (fig. 1), Generalised where the onset of the seizu re is across both hemispheres (fig. 2) or Secondary ecumenicalised where a partial seizure later spreads to involve the majority of the 2 cerebral hemispheres (Duncan et al., 2006). Figure 2 Partial seizure with neuronal activation in one hemisphereThe outside(a) League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) have defined 6 main types of seizures Clonic, Tonic, Tonic-Clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic (Solodar, 2014), with all having the shared characteristic of syncope.Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures) are the most common and typically last 30 seconds with an initial back arching cause (tonic phase), followed by severe shaking of clay limbs (clonic phase) in which sufferers can become incontinent and bit their spittle (fig. 3).Myoclonic seizures consist of muscle spasms throughout the body, while absence seizures only display mild symptoms such as a slight head turn or repetitive eye blinking (Engel and Pedley, 2008). Figure 3 Tonic and Clonic phases of a seizureCauses of Epile psyMajority of cases are termed idiopathic, meaning there is no known reason for the disorder in that individual. The difference in causes amongst the general population can be seen in figure 4.Genetic accompanimentors can causes epilepsy as can environmental factors. In general it is a conclave of the two which go on to cause someone to become epileptic. Over 500 genes have been identified to be linked to the disorder if mutated with some making individuals more sensitive to environmental conditions that can lead off seizures (Sanchez-Carpintero Abad et al., 2007).Some symptomatic causes of epilepsy include brain tumours, strokes, low oxygen during birth, head injuries during birth or during a persons lifetime, infections such as meningitis or anything which causes damage to the brain (Chang and Lowenstein, 2003).Figure 4 Causes of epilepsy amongst the general populationConclusionEpilepsy is a condition which has a host of causes as have been highlighted. It is the category of seizure within the brain an individual has which will determine the type of seizure they have and the altered body state which is displayed. This can be a very distressing disorder for sufferers as they are inefficient to control when they have a seizure and could occur at a very dangerous time such as whilst driving. The effective management via medication, surgery or lifestyle changes can reduce a persons chance of suffering future seizures. Unfortunately in the majority of cases, the cause is unknown. This makes it extremely difficult to target the disease for a cure, therefore minimising the probability of a seizure is the next surmount thing.ReferencesCASCINO, G., HOPKINS, A. O. SHORVON, S. D. 1995. Epilepsy, capital of the United Kingdom, Chapman Hall medical exam.CHANG, B. S. LOWENSTEIN, D. H. 2003. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med, 349, 1257-66.DUNCAN, J. S., SANDER, J. W., SISODIYA, S. M. WALKER, M. C. 2006. Adult epilepsy. Lancet, 367, 1087-100.ENGEL, J., JR. PEDLEY, T. A. 2008. Epilepsy a comprehensive textbook, Philadelphia, Pa. London, Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams Wilkins.NGUGI, A. K., BOTTOMLEY, C., KLEINSCHMIDT, I., SANDER, J. W. NEWTON, C. R. 2010. inclination of the pack of restless and life-time epilepsy a meta-analytic approach. Epilepsia, 51, 883-890.SANCHEZ-CARPINTERO ABAD, R., SANMARTI VILAPLANA, F. X. SERRATOSA FERNANDEZ, J. M. 2007. Genetic causes of epilepsy. Neurologist, 13, S47-51.SCAMBLER, G. 1989. Epilepsy, London, Tavistock / Routledge.SCOTT, D. 1978. About epilepsy, London, Duckworth.SOLODAR, J. 2014. Commentary ILAE Definition of Epilepsy. Epilepsia, 55, 491.FiguresENGEL, J., JR. PEDLEY, T. A. 2008. Epilepsy a comprehensive textbook, Philadelphia, Pa. London, Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams Wilkins. figures 1 2http// figure 3http// figure 4AppendixReference font Book cross-file tour 1988Author Cascino, Gregory, Hopkins, Anthony October and Shorvon, S. D. course 1995 epithet EpilepsyPlace produce LondonPublisher Chapman Hall medical checkup edition 2nd ed / edited by Anthony Hopkins, Simon Shorvon and Gregory Cascino. compact Title EpilepsyISBN 0412543303 95.00 access come up b9561325Call digit 616.853 20British Library DSC 95/22799British Library STI (B) GV 05 blsrisscKeywords Epilepsy.Notes GB9561325 bnb2362Previous ed. 1987.Includes bibliographies and index. look into Notes Useful book, specially for historical aspects. Uses contrasting nomenclature for seizures than other material, possibly due to age of printReference Type Journal memberRecord Number 2037Author Chang, B. S. and Lowenstein, D. H.Year 2003Title EpilepsyJournal N Engl J MedVolume 349 prune 13Pages 1257-66Epub Date 2003/09/26Date Sep 25 bypass Title EpilepsyAlternate Journal The New England journal of medicineISSN 0028-4793DOI 10.1056/NEJMra022308Accession Number 14507951Keywords Cerebral pallium/pathology/physiopathologyElectroencephalographyEpilepsy/classification/etiology/pathology/*physiopathologyHippocampus/pathologycosmosIon Channels/physiopathologyNeuroglia/physiologySclerosisThalamus/physiopathologyNotes 1533-4406Chang, Bernard SLowenstein, Daniel HNS39950/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ fall in StatesJournal condition search Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.ReviewUnited StatesN Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25349(13)1257-66.Research Notes Good overview of the disorder with relevant sections around the causesAuthor Address Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.Database Provider NLMLanguage engReference Type Journal ArticleRecord Number 10337Author Duncan, J. S., Sander, J. W., Sisodiya, S. M. and Walker, M. C.Year 2006Title Adult epilepsyJournal LancetVolume 367Issue 9516Pages 1087-100Epub Date 2006/04/04Date Apr 1Short Title Adult epilepsyAlternate Journal La ncetISSN 0140-6736DOI 10.1016/s0140-6736(06)68477-8Accession Number 16581409Keywords Adult seniorAnticonvulsants/adverse effects/*therapeutic useDrug Resistance/* transmissible scienceElectroencephalography*Epilepsy/diagnosis/drug therapy/physiopathologyHumansIncidenceInfantPharmaco transmittablesAbstract The epilepsies are one of the most common serious brain disorders, can occur at all ages, and have many possible presentations and causes. Although incidence in childhood has fall over the past three decades in developed countries, this reduction is matched by an increase in time-worn people. Monogenic Mendelian epilepsies are rare. A clinical syndrome often has multiple possible genetic causes, and conversely, different mutations in one gene can lead to various epileptic syndromes. Most common epilepsies, however, are probably complex traits with environmental effects acting on inherited susceptibility, mediated by common variation in particular genes. Diagnosis of epilepsy remai ns clinical, and neurophysiological investigations assist with diagnosis of the syndrome. Brain resourcefulness is making great progress in identifying the structural and functional causes and consequences of the epilepsies. Current antiepileptic drugs suppress seizures without influencing the primal tendency to generate seizures, and are effective in 60-70% of individuals. Pharmacogenetic studies hold the promise of being able to transgress individualise treatment for each patient, with maximum possibility of benefit and minimum risk of adverse effects. For people with refractory focal epilepsy, neurosurgical resection offers the possibility of a life-changing cure. Potential new treatments include precise prediction of seizures and focal therapy with drug delivery, neural stimulation, and biological grafts.Notes 1474-547xDuncan, John SSander, Josemir WSisodiya, Sanjay MWalker, Matthew CJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. GovtReviewEnglandLancet. 2006 Apr 1367(9516)1087-10 0.Research Notes Very estimable overview with clear explanation around neuronal activity of seizuresAuthor Address Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. emailprotectedDatabase Provider NLMLanguage engReference Type BookRecord Number 10529Author Engel, Jerome, Jr. and Pedley, herds grass A.Year 2008Title Epilepsy a comprehensive textbookPlace Published Philadelphia, Pa. LondonPublisher Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams WilkinsPages 2797version 2nd ed.Short Title Epilepsy a comprehensive textbookISBN 9780781757775 (set) 173.000781757770 (set) 173.00Call Number 616.853 22British Library DSC m07/.34665 vol. 1British Library STI (B) 616.853British Library DSC m07/.34666 vol. 3British Library DSC m07/.34664 vol. 2Keywords Epilepsy.Notes GBA771698 bnbeditors, Jerome Engel Jr., Timothy A. Pedley associate editors, Jean Aicardi et al..Previous ed. c1998.Includes bibliographical references and index.Formerl y CIP. UkResearch Notes Had everything covered in good detail.Reference Type Journal ArticleRecord Number 10335Author Ngugi, Anthony K., Bottomley, Christian, Kleinschmidt, Immo, Sander, Josemir W. and Newton, Charles R.Year 2010Title Estimation of the burden of active and life-time epilepsy a meta-analytic approachJournal EpilepsiaVolume 51Issue 5Pages 883-890Short Title Estimation of the burden of active and life-time epilepsy a meta-analytic approachISSN 0013-9580DOI 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02481.xAbstract To estimate the burden of lifetime epilepsy (LTE) and active epilepsy (AE) and examine the influence of study characteristics on prevalence estimates.Notes 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02481.xResearch Notes Only real useful for prevalence related materialURL http// of Database READCUBEReference Type Journal ArticleRecord Number 11373Author Sanchez-Carpintero Abad, R., Sanmarti Vilaplana, F. X. and Serratosa Fernandez, J. M.Year 2007T itle Genetic causes of epilepsyJournal NeurologistVolume 13Issue 6 Suppl 1Pages S47-51Date NovShort Title Genetic causes of epilepsyAlternate Journal The brain doctorISSN 1074-7931 (Print)1074-7931 (Linking)DOI 10.1097/NRL.0b013e31815bb07dAccession Number 18090951Keywords AnimalsCerebral Cortex/physiopathologyEpilepsy/*etiology/*genetics/pathologyHumansIon Channel Gating/geneticsIon Channels/genetics/*physiologyAbstract BACKGROUND The contribution of genetic factors to the origin of different epilepsies is a fact established by epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies. These studies have make it possible to identify numerous mutations in different genes that cause or predispose to the development of certain types of epilepsy. REVIEW SUMMARY The study of single-gene epilepsies has contributed relevant info regarding the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Most of these genes encode voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels. Other single-gene epilepsies are related to mutations that pro voke alterations in neuronal aging and migration during embryonic development. Nevertheless, the most common forms of epilepsy are not caused by single mutations but by a combination of polymorphisms, most of which are unknown, that generate an alteration in neuronal excitability. In some syndromes, genetic alterations and their consequences have made it possible to explain the therapeutic response to different drugs. Therefore, the progress being made in genetics is changing the classification and diagnosis of epilepsy moreover, it can sometimes influence the choice of treatment. remnant The advances made in genetic knowledge of epilepsy have led to the description of new epilepsy syndromes and to a develop characterization of known ones. However, the genes responsible for the most common forms of idiopathic epilepsy remain mostly unknown. This means that for the time being, in clinical practice, genetic diagnosis is limited to uncommon syndromes and to cases in which treatment decisions or genetic counseling can be derived from the diagnosis.Notes Sanchez-Carpintero Abad, RocioSanmarti Vilaplana, Francesc XSerratosa Fernandez, Jose MariaengResearch Support, Non-U.S. GovtReview2008/01/26 0900Neurologist. 2007 Nov13(6 Suppl 1)S47-51. doi 10.1097/NRL.0b013e31815bb07d.Research Notes Very complicated to read. Poorly illustrated.URL http// Address Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. emailprotectedReference Type BookRecord Number 2015Author Scambler, GrahamYear 1989Title EpilepsyPlace Published LondonPublisher Tavistock / RoutledgeShort Title EpilepsyISBN 0415017580 (pbk) No price0415017572 (cased) No priceAccession Number b8920431Call Number 362.1/96853 19British Library DSC 89/23194British Library HMNTS YK.1989.a.5440Keywords Epileptics Psychology.Notes GB8920431 bnb2054Graham Scambler.The interpret of illnessBibliography p124-130. _ Includes index.R esearch Notes Written with the patient in mind but lacks specific scientific infoReference Type BookRecord Number 2011Author Scott, Donald F.Year 1978Title About Epilepsy rewrite EditionPlace Published S.l.Publisher DuckworthEdition 3rd Ed.Short Title About Epilepsy revise EditionISBN 0715609467Call Number British Library DSC 79/5721Research Notes Very well indite with good scientific data to back up claims.Reference Type Journal ArticleRecord Number 10484Author Solodar, J.Year 2014Title Commentary ILAE Definition of EpilepsyJournal EpilepsiaVolume 55Issue 4Pages 491Date AprShort Title Commentary ILAE Definition of EpilepsyAlternate Journal EpilepsiaISSN 1528-1167 (Electronic)0013-9580 (Linking)DOI 10.1111/epi.12594Accession Number 24731170Keywords *Advisory CommitteesEpilepsy/*classification/*diagnosisFemaleHumansMale*Research Report*Societies, MedicalNotes Solodar, JessicaengComment2014/04/16 0600Epilepsia. 2014 Apr55(4)491. doi 10.1111/epi.12594. Epub 2014 Apr 14.URL http//w Notes Good summary of definitions around seizures and all terminology within epilepsy1

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