Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Learning Strategies In A Task Based Learning Education Essay
Learning Strategies In A line Based Learning Education EssayTask-Based lyric poem Teaching (TBLT) as one of the ways of implementing a Communicative nomenclature Teaching (CLT) approach is a favorite method employed by incline teachers in Asia (Nunan, 2003) claimed that most Asian countries surveyed (Mainland China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam) subscribe to the principles of CLT, and in a event of them, TBLT (the up-to-the-minute realization of CLT) is the central pillar of government rhetoric. Task is basically defined as a goal-oriented schoolroom employment (Ellis, 2003 Nunan, 2006 Oxford, 2006 Prabhu, 1987 Willis, 1998). It requires learners work of target wording that is pointed more on the conveying of signification rather than on the practice of form (Ellis, 2003 Nunan, 2006 Skehan, 1998). Oxford (2006) completes the definition of tasks as behavi viva voce schoolroom instructions that be externally imposed either on a person or a group .There atomic number 18 devil basic solid grounds to select TBL as an English command and tuition approach. The maiden reason is the desire for a meaning-foc utilized approach that reflects real life run-in use (Leaver Willis, 2004). Language use ineluctably to be transferred from real being activities into classroom activities, and this provoke be done through TBL. Another reason for selecting TBL is that task based inter action at laws stimulate natural acquisition processes (Prabhu, 1987). A number of studies reveal the legalness of TBL in enhancing students language proficiency, especially their oral exam exam conversation skills (eg., Ahmed, 1996 Lochana Deb, 2006).It is official policy that the breeding and schooling process of English as a foreign language at the Business fundament segment of the State Polytechnic of Malang is through a Task-Based Learning (TBL) approach. TBL has been adopted by the Business establishment discussion section of the State Polytechnic of Malang because, as the la mental demonstrate realization of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach, TBL is an execution of instrument of the overarching Competency-Based curriculum the subdivision employs. The selection of English teaching topics in this part is initiated with a needs analysis the division regularly visits companies to survey employers expectation of their future employees skills. closely companies, especially the foreign companies, expect that their future employees possess adequate English oral conversation skills as the first priority. Thus, the first goal of the teaching of English as a foreign language at this department is toward students adequate oral intercourse proficiency. In this study, I define a task as a classroom activity that is focused on meaning rather than on form and that requires the learners to achieve observable outcomes by employing English as the target language for oral communication skills as used in rea l life. Appendix 1 is an example of TBL activity to develop the required skills.The combination of needs analysis and appropriate TBL activities would calculate to be the most efficient way to develop the required skills. The murder of Task-Based Learning has unfortunately had limited success to date. Most students graduating from the Business Administration department do not possess adequate oral communication skills. This problem is common among Indonesian tertiary education institutions, especially in the non-English departments. With my informal observation of teaching in this non-English department, this lack of success is in some part due to teachers limited familiarity with suitable and appropriate implementation of Task-Based Learning. Measures need to be taken to improve the quality of the implementation of the TBL and this can be done through appropriately manipulating task characteristics and conditions.However, manipulating task characteristics and conditions entirel y does not guarantee the meeting of a pedagogic outcome wariness also needs to be directed to the learners as the participants of the tasks. Learners attention and their have got reading needs contribute to their motilitys to gain task outcomes (Murphy, 2003). The more effort students make to reach the outcome, the better the consequence of the learn testament be. Their strategies to hand the tasks largely determine their success in attaining the pedagogic goal.Learning strategies are personal efforts employed by learners to complete tasks , and students of disparate development styles and contrastive cultural background may employ different strategies to learn to give out in a foreign language (Lam, 2007). Furthermore, appropriate employment of learning strategies plays an imperative role in promoting students self-confidence regarding the development of their communicative competence (Oxford, 1990). Successful learners are believed to effectively employ appropriate l earning strategies.Regarding the teachability accept of learning strategies, a number of researchers (Griffiths Parr, 2001 Oxford, 1990, 1996) argue that learning strategies are relatively easy to teach and modify. Students can be trained to be assured of and more conscious of learning dodge use and more adroit at employing appropriate strategies. Task requirements and teachers expectations that are expressed through classroom instructional methods also shape students learning strategy choice.With the assumption that a task-based learning approach pull up stakesing help students in developing their communication skills and that the implementation of this approach pass on result in students use of effective learning strategies which in turn go out elevate students success in developing their communication skills, I am interested in parcel outing a collaborative action research case study to produce an effective task-based learning course of instruction which aims to develo p students verbal communication skills and to seek the pretend of task-based learning on students employment of learning strategies.Purpose of the StudyThe primordial concern of this study is to crush non-English department students learning strategies in a task-based learning approach which focuses on their oral communication skills.Research QuestionsThe aforesaid(prenominal) purpose of the study leads to the formulation of research questions as fol small-scaleWhat learning strategies do students with a range of oral proficiency levels employ during the implementation of a task-based learning approach?Do these learning strategies change during a TBL program?What are the students and teachers perception of the impact of TBL on the employment of learning strategies?Delimitation of the StudyAs reflected by the needs analysis conducted with likely employers, the first required skills to be possessed by graduates of the Business Administration department of the State Polytechnic of Malang are their oral communication skills. Academically, the TBL program is designed to develop students oral communication skills. In accordance with this focus, my intention to explore students use of learning strategies is focused on the students employment of oral communication learning strategies.MethodologyThis research go forth be aware by a qualitative research paradigm and involve an action research case study. It is an action research approach in which I lead work collaboratively with one of the English teachers to improve the quality of the EFL teaching and learning process in this vocational eminenter education institution in Indonesia which is using a TBL program. During the implementation of the TBL, I will explore students employment of learning strategies as a bounded system (a case) or septuple bounded systems (cases) over time, through detailed, in-depth selective information collection involving multiple sources of information (Creswell, 2007). Regarding the multiple sources of information, I will use some different instruments of data collection namely questionnaire, one on one interviews, focus group discussions, and document reviews (students scores of their oral communication skills which is always officially conducted by the teacher every semester, students learning journals, and teachers reflective journals).The research participants will be nine second year students of the Business Administration department of the State Polytechnic of Malang. These students are within a range of oral communication skills levels three students are of the spunky rank, three are average, and the nett three are of low rank. The determination of the students levels is based on their test scores ( concluding semester scores). Because the first goal of teaching English in this department is developing oral communication skills, then, their final test scores are to measure their oral communication skills. Based on their scores, students who belong t o the high rank, middle rank and low rank will be invited to be recruited as the participants of the study. Because this study, in one part, will be a collaborative action research, the class teacher will also be a participant in the study.The Methods of the study will includeQuestionnaire (Oral communication schema Inventory/OCSI), adopted from Nakatani (2006). For detail description of the strategies inventory please continue to appendix 2.Students learning journals ( iodin entry per week)Teachers reflective journal ( ace entry per 2 weeks)Focus group discussion (see appendix 3 for the interview guide) wiz on one interviews (one to expand on students responses on the OCSI questionnaire, one for an interview with the teacher, and one interview for the Stimulated Recall)Direct observations of both students classroom activities and of videotaped students classroom activities. For these observations, checklist and field notes will be used. The observation checklist is presented in Appendix 4.The data collection process will be conducted pastime three stages degree One Preliminary data collectionIndication of students existing language levels (the oral communication proficiency levels). This execution will be conducted following the official testing method as usually implemented by the institution. The oral production test rating scale including its description is attached. The result of this test will determine the participants whom I will invite to accede in my study. The first three students of the high, three of the average, and the last three of the low rank groups to volunteer will be recruited as the participants of my study.Completion of OCSI questionnaire (Oral confabulation Strategy Inventory) which is adapted from Nakatani (2006).This inventory will be translated into Bahasa Indonesia in suppose to gain true response from the participants without foreign language difficulties that may intervene. This procedure will function to determine the ex isting language learning strategies that students employ.One -on- One interviewThis one -on- one interview will process me to expand on the questionnaire data to gain deeper information from the participants regarding their use of learning strategies. The interview will also be conducted in Bahasa IndonesiaStage 2 During data CollectionStudents learning journal (one entry per week, in Bahasa Indonesia)In this learning journal participants are expected to respond to the following questionsWhat strategy did you use in accomplishing the task?Why did you employ this strategy? call up the strategy and explain how (the context) in which you used the strategy.Classroom activities videotapingThere will be classroom activities videotaping once per week with duration of 90 minutes per lesson. This will be conducted for 6 weeks.Stage deuce-ace Final selective information CollectionDirect observation of classroom activitiesRedo of questionnaire completion (Oral Communication Strategies Inv entory/OCSI)Videotaped pair work activities for use in the stimulated abjure interviewFinal interview on the use of learning strategies as the extension of the OCSI questionnaire completion and Stimulated Recall (pair interview)Official administration of final test on oral communication using the same test administered in the initial process of data collection.Additional data will be collected through the collaborative relationship with the class teacher. info collection will be in the following stagesStage One an interview in which the teacher is asked to explain his apprehension of TBL and student learning strategies.Stage Two a reflective journalStage Three a final interview in which the teacher is asked to revisit his understanding of TBL and learning strategies and to reflect on his perception of the impact of the above on the students language skillsDetails of data collection activities are as found in the data collection calendar in appendix 5.Data analysis approachThe da ta analysis of this study will find during the data collection process. To disassemble qualitative data, it is preferred to do it concurrently with data collection (eg. Merriam, 2009). The analysis will be focused on students employment of learning strategies during the accomplishment of TBL. This learning strategy exploration is the main(prenominal) tool to analyse the data. The analysis will be based on the Oral Communication Strategies Inventory (OCSI) developed by Nakatani (2006) which sees learning strategies as conscious cognitive behaviours with two main categories namely strategies for coping with sermon problems and strategies for coping with listening problems. The speaking strategies are composed of 8 factors maculation the listening strategies consist of 7 factors. I will also analyse students employment of learning strategies based on their oral communication levels students of high rank, of middle rank, and of low rank. Appendix 6 shows the diagram of main role m odel of the data analysis. Since this study involves more than one subject, the data analysis will be within-case analysis followed with across-case analysis.To upshot the second research question, I will analyse the data chronologically from the beginning of the semester until the end of the semester. There will be three periods of chronological analysis with one period covert five-week implementation of TBL. This is to analyse the change of learning strategy use.Data on students and the teachers perceptions of the impact of TBL on the development of learning strategies will answer the threesome research question. This may be an exploration of differences between students and the teachers perceptions. There may also be an analysis of differences in the teachers perceptions before the implementation of TBL and afterwards the implementation of TBL.In general, the data analysis will follow these travelIdentifying units.This unit is a potential answer or part of an answer to the r esearch questions. To answer the first research question, I will analyse students strategies for coping with speaking problems and strategies for coping with listening problems. Secondly, there will be units of analysis of individual students, a group of students with the same level of oral communication skills, and students of across levels of oral communication skills. Third, I will conduct a chronological analysis of the students learning strategies development/changes of every-five-week period of TBL implementation.Categorizing the units.This will be conducted through classifying units based on the recurring regularities of the data. Included in this stage is sorting or reducing redundant data and qualification a concrete description of observable data. The identified data of students use of learning strategies in the implementation of TBL will be described in detail.Interpreting the data.At this stage the categorized data will be interpreted and referred back to the theory. It is a process of making inferences or generating theory. I will refer back to the learning strategies theories (for example, Cohen Macaro, 2007 McDonough, 1995 OMalley Chamot, 1990 Oxford, 1990) including communication strategies theories (for example, Bialystok, 1990).